BOV stands for blow-off valve, sometimes called a pop-off valve or compressor bypass valve. This is a spring-loaded valve mounted in between the turbocharger and throttle body that opens at a preset pressure. It's function is to provide an escape route for pressurized air trapped in the intake system when the turbocharger is spinning and the throttle place suddenly closes. Although many turbocharged cars lack a BOV, its presence makes the car more driveable. Opinion on whether it improves turbocharger longevity is divided.
The original DSM BOVs were designed to open at about 30 psi or so. Unfortunately for 2G owners, Chrylser replaced the metal 1G BOV with a plastic one that begins to leak at about 15 psi. This is a major problem for those 2Gers looking to up their boost, since the BOV will start to leak a lot of useful boost pressure back into the atmosphere. For this reason, 1G BOVs are a popular upgrade on 2G DSMs.
Hardcore 1Gers might also find the stock BOV to leak under higher boost pressures (more than 20 psi). To correct this problem, some owners crush their BOVs slightly, so they will open only at higher pressures.
BOV crushing doesn't seem to help the valve hold more boost. See What is a crushed BOV?
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