Oil pressure is directly related to
When changing the oil you often end up with a slightly different amount of oil in the engine then you had previously. Less oil means less oil pressure - add a little more oil and the pressure will rise.
Also, the oil pump is driven by an accessory belt. Operating the engine at higher speed runs the oil pump faster, raising oil pressure. Consequently, oil pressure is lowest when the car is idling (and hot), and will rise during cruising.
Normal oil pressure on these cars is between the Low and Mid mark when idling, and between the Mid and High marks when cruising. These marks, unfortunately, do not correspond to any known psi rating.
Limited testing by DSM owners with mechanical oil pressure gauges indicate that DSMs tend to have around 70-90 psi of oil pressure while cruising, and only 10-20 psi while idling. Cold starts can generate oil pressures of over 100 psi, a fact verified by the DSM manuals when discussing proper oil filter selection.
Consistently low oil pressure while driving could be an oil leak, or a bad oil pressure sending unit. Be careful.
The Last Word: Some DSMs just show low oil pressure, period. My car has shown low oil pressure for years, but nothing comes of it.
And, despite what some people have told me, oil pressure DOES depend - a little bit, at least - on the amount of oil. I've seen the oil pressure on my car go up by adding a bit more oil. There is a danger of overfilling the oil and causing oil "frothing", but I consider that a low-probability problem, whereas my car (and most DSMs, by now) does definitely leak and/or burn oil. Personally, I'd rather have a bit too much than not enough.
The oil light on the dash may come on under hard braking when your oil is low. Top up immediately.
Finally, the little connector that connects the oil pressure sender to the dash gauge can wear out and/or fall off. The gauge will show zero oil pressure and scare the bejeezus out of you, but the dash oil light doesn't light up. The sender is located between the oil filter and the wheel, under the car.
Many. Read Michael Stegbauer's Idle page. Brad Baur has an excellent idle surge VFAQ up. Also read the answer to "How do I adjust the idle on a [DSM]" in this FAQ.
If this process doesn't work, you are in the minority. Try looking for something basic, such as
High idle can also be caused by a throttle cable or cruise control cables that are too tight.
Some troubleshooting tips: if your idle adjusts when your A/C compressor is on, or when all of the electrical accessories are on, the ISC is at least partially working. If your idle appears to fluctuate with temperature, suspect an air leak in a vacuum hose or at the air intake first.
If you need to check the ISC, do it when it is hot. The ISC resistance can sometimes change when it has cooled down. Thus, the ISC looks ok when checked, but misbehaves when actually operating. The same holds true for cables since they can tighten up during operation.
The Last Word: With the age of these cars, cracked hoses, hardened gaskets and broken seals are going to be very common. The throttle body shaft seals can leak air, for one example. It's the nature of an older car.
Idle is low
Stalls during stops
Idle is high
Car won't start
Idle is irratic
Stumble during idle
This is likely the infamous 'hot start' problem. This question pops up every year in the springtime, when many DSMs 'suddenly' exhibit this problem.
Perhaps better named as a 'warm start' problem, this difficulty often surfaces after a car has been driven, then parked for a relatively short period of time. Upon restart, the warm engine (not fully cooled down from the previous drive) appears reluctant to crank over. When it does catch, idle is often in the 300-500 RPM range, with engine shaking, sputtering, reluctance to rev up, and sometimes stalling. Holding the accelerator down until the engine smooths out often 'solves' the problem, but sometimes the engine will not rev up at all. Often the problem will correct itself with no intervention by the driver.
Please note that an inability to crank over or failure to actually start the engine are not related to the 'hot start' problem. The problem referred to by that name relates only to bad idling after starting.
This problem appears to pop up on every year of DSM if the conditions are right. Dealerships are often completely unable to diagnose or even replicate the problem.
First diagnosed in the 1990 year, Mutsibishi developed a 'kludge box' - an add-on ECU modification - designed to fix the problem, and released TSBs #18-08-91 and 18-55-91 describing it. Other model years have no such box available, nor are there any TSBs. Since TSBs are not warranties, 1990 owners may still be out of luck. There are no reports that the kludge box was effective anyway, but at least 1990 owners have a definite 'fix' to try out.
Later 1G owners have reported a bewildering array of 'fixes' to this problem. Owners have reported hot start problems that they have attributed to many different components. Fortunately, Jim McKenna put together a nice Hot Start FAQ that should help you diagnose the problem. However, since the problem can arise from a large number of component failures, you may end up systematically going through your engine to find the problem component.
2G cars also have this problem, which is puzzling since they are largely different from their 1G counterparts. There has been speculation that there is some kind of flaw or design error in the 2G engine or ECU software that allows this problem to occur. In other cases, the ECUs were able to flag a specific error that helped the owners track down the errant sensor that was causing the difficulty. In any case, the fixes described in the Hot Start FAQ may still help out 2G owners. Other fixes include changing thermostats, switching brands of gas, and general fuel and ignition systems troubleshooting.
It is possible, however, that some (or all) of these problems are nothing more than good old-fashioned vapor lock. Gasoline blends vary according to climate, and winter fuels have more volatility than summer fuels. (In other words, winter gas vaporizes better.) In warm temperatures winter gas might vaporize more than it should. Since fuel pumps cannot pump vapor, the engine does not get the fuel it requires to idle properly and it ends up stumbling. Eventually the problem cures itself once the vapor is cleared from the fuel system. Presumably it will go away in colder temperatures or once summer fuels become available.
The Last Word: No real consistent fix has ever been discovered for this problem. Personally, I think it's a combination of two problems: an ECU coding bug, where the ECU gets "confused" because the temperature and other sensor inputs do not correspond to the actual engine condition on a "warm start", and good old-fashioned vapor lock in fluctuating weather conditions. YMMV.
This is commonly attributed to the hydraulic lash adjusters (lifters) used in the DSM cars. Other cars have similar problems - Mazda owners, for example, refer to them as HLA problems. Other possible causes include excessive carbon buildup on the valves and piston heads.
The general consensus is that this problem is not damaging to the engine. Indeed, many owners have lived with the problem for years with no side effects. In extreme cases, it is possible that the ticking may be picked up by the ECU as knock, causing a retardation in timing that will cost some engine power. This case seems to be the exception, not the rule, since the DSM ECU only 'listens' for knock during specific time intervals.
In the past, owners have reported that their tick appeared or went away with certain oil brands, oil weights, oil filters, oil pressures or the like. These 'solutions' appear to be car-specific and do not represent a real fix, but some experimentation may help alleviate the problem. Some owners find that adding a small amount of extra oil helps to raise oil pressures and minimize the ticking, but again, it doesn't work for everyone.
Yet another solution involves realigning the lifters in the engine to promote better oil retention. Jeff Brinkerhoff recently did so with excellent results, reported in the December 2, 1998 Digest. Bryan Cobb has followed his example with similar success. Check the FAQ Locator to find the procedure.
Simply replacing the problem lifters is unquestionably the best option. The lifters have been redesigned to eliminate the tick. There is a VFAQ on this process, which is not terribly difficult, and involves about as much work as realigning the existing lifters. Use the FAQ Locator to find it. The newer lifters apparantly do not rotate, and do not suffer from alignment problems.
There have actually been a few versions of the lifters. The original were Mitsubishi part number MD149309 used in 1990 to 1997 cars. A redesigned version (part MD337687) was then introduced, and was replaced yet again by part MD377054. This latest part number is reportedly the best version but the availability may be limited if dealerships still have some of the older part still in inventory.
Mike Ferrara focused on the problem of carbon deposits on the valves. It is a relatively dangerous procedure, as it involves pouring automatic transmission fluid into the intake of the engine. As fluids are incompressible, a miscalculation can literally devastate your engine. A few DSMers have experienced major engine damage from performing this procedure incorrectly. Thus, this procedure is not recommended for the novice mechanic
Rather than doing this dangerous procedure, those who have non-lifter tick problems should consider using Mopar Combustion Chamber Cleaner on their car. Other Digest members have had considerable success using it to clean major carbon deposits in the DSM engines. Read the Mopar Combustion Chamber Cleaner discussion captured on VFAQ page
Other sources of non-lifter tick include exhaust system problems including a cracked exhaust manifold, broken exhaust maifold bolt or stud, cracked turbine housing or other exhaust leak. Some owners have reported that their tick went away after changing, repairing or upgrading their manifolds. Others have found that their spark wires (whether new, old, upgraded or whatever) were arcing to the block, causing a sparking sound they mistook for lifter tick. This is usually detected by looking under the hood at a running engine in the dark. Finally, a few owners are sure their ticking is really the injectors firing.
Excessive engine vibration is a telltale sign that the balance shafts (also known as silent shafts) are out of alignment. These shafts are designed to counterbalance the engine to keep it from shaking during normal operation.
If the engine vibration just started, do NOT start or drive your car until you can verify that the balance shaft belt is okay. If the belt is old or worn, it can jump, causing the balance shafts to be out of phase. This, in itself, will not damage your engine, but is a symptom of much larger potential problems.
The real problem is that if the balance belt jumped, it may be getting ready to break, and could the next time you start your car. This in itself is not a bad thing (the car runs fine without the balance belt at all), but the balance belt has a nasty habit of hitting the timing belt after breaking. The timing belt will often jump or break after such treatment, which is, literally, an engine-destroying event. You can count on losing at least eight valves if the timing belt jumps, and probably all sixteen if it breaks. Repair costs can run into the thousands. It is for this reason that the balance shaft belt should be replaced at least as often as the main timing belt.
It is also possible that the engine will shake immediately after a timing belt change. This is indicative of a simple misalignment of the balance shafts in the engine. Running the car that way is not damaging, but is obviously undesireable. Return the car to the shop in question to have the timing re-done - driving it there is usually ok, although towing is great (especially if you can get the shop to do it). Read the timing belt VFAQ for more information. (Yes, it's listed in the FAQ Locator.)
Try putting a small amount of Ajax on the back of the offending belt(s) and running the car. This helps clean the belts off. If this does not work, you can purchase belt dressing from any auto parts store that might quiet them down a bit. You can also check the belts for correct tension - sometimes overtightening the belts (by just a bit!) will eliminate the problem.
Inspect your underdrive pulley. Make sure it is not cracked.
There have been reports that badly rebuilt alternator may also be the cause of the squealing belt. Try another alternator as a last resort.
Yes. Replace your thermostat. Although you can use a cooler thermostat, this may not be a good idea. See this answer for why.
If this fails to solve the problem, you may be having difficulties with your coolant temperature sensor. This sensor also affects idle, air/fuel mixture, and timing, and failures can generally be detected by the ECU as error code #21. A burned out fan switch or relay may also be the fault.
For racers that run their car at sustained high RPMs, it is possible that their cooling pump may not be operating that well due to cavitation. For these people, an underdrive pulley will spin the cooling pump slower than typical, allowing it to operate properly. This is not a concern for non-racers.
If you have ECMLink, start the car with the rad cap off.
No. This is normal. It is simply the air moving through the intake/bov that you are hearing.
Chances are you used silicone to installed a 1G BOV to your 2G. The silicone can plug up a little secondary air hole in the BOV. The hole is located next to the main BOV hole on the mounting flange. Clean out that little hole and the chirp should go away.
The Last Word: If it's more a whistle than a chirp, it may be the infamous "boost canary", caused by the BOV opening and closing. Don't worry about it.
Poor boost is often a symptom of other problems. It is important to know why the boost is low before attempting corrections.
The DSM ECUs have partial control over the amount of turbo boost through the use of the boost control solenoid (BCS) a.k.a. thewastegate bypass solenoid. Under normal driving conditions, the BCS is open and allows the wastegate to open at the normal intake pressure. Should the ECU detect a serious problem with the engine, it will often close the BCS, causing the wastegate to open sooner and lowering the turbo boost produced.
The ECU uses the BCS to reduce turbo boost in several situations. Should the ECU detect a large amount of airflow into the engine, the BCS will be pulsed off and on to reduce the air intake to acceptable levels. This can lower the turbo boost significantly, and usually only occurs at high RPMs. This is usually a temporary problem, which disappears when the intake airflow drops to more normal levels.
The ECU will also close the BCS if it detects significant engine knock. Knock, also known as preignition or detonation, is a damaging condition brought on by excessively advanced ignition timing, lean air-fuel mixtures and/or low octane or poor quality gasoline. The BCS is the second and last line of defense against knock - the ECU will first retard the ignition timing in an attempt to prevent knock. If this fails, the BCS will close to reduce the intake air flow (and boost pressure) to a minimum value, hopefully eliminating the knock at the expense of engine power.
A simple LED monitor circuit can be constructed to check the operation of the BCS. If the BCS is pulsing, or remains closed during typical engine operation, it means that you may have some other problem that is making the ECU very nervous. This is often accompanied by retarded engine timing, resulting in a further power loss, all of which makes the car much slower than it should be. Note that the operation of the BCS monitor is not necessarily intuitive - study the Troubleshooting section, this issue of the Diagnostic Port, and the Boost Solenoid Details page very carefully before deciding you have a problem.
If the BCS is not operating as expected, suspects include poor quality gas, excessive turbo pressures, injector malfunctions, oxygen sensor malfunctions, and anything else that can lead to a low-octane, air-rich mixture inside the cylinders. Differences in mass airflow sensors from car to car will also affect the operation of the BCS.
If the BCS is fine, the timing may still be retarded due to airflow or knock problems. If you are certain this is not the case, it may be time for some modifications; see "What should I do to make my car faster, or handle better?" , above.
If you are certain this information does not relate to your problem, check your intercooler hoses. Often a hose has popped off, or is leaking air badly. Another spot to check is the wastegate actuator; make sure the actuator rod is still connected to the wastegate door. Otherwise, the wastegate may be flopping open and letting out all the boost air. Sometimes the arm has broken off the wastegate due to a rusted-out holding pin.
This is called boost creep, and occurs when the turbo is pushing so much air that the wastegate, even when fully open, cannot dump all of the intake pressure. This results in a continual increase in intake pressure, and is common with upgraded turbos, especially with upgradeddownpipes - the exhaust would rather flow through the turbo/exhaust than the more restrictive wastegate, which spins the turbo ever faster. Cars with this problem can develop mind-blowing (and engine-blowing) intake pressures in a hurry.
The general solution to this problem is to port the oxygen sensor housing, turbine housing and/or wastegate to allow them to dump more air. Otherwise minor malfunctions of the wastegate may also exhibit themselves as boost creep, such as poor travel on the wategate actuator arm. Some people use an external wastegate for better pressure control.
Check out Tom Stangl's - O2 Housing Porting vfaq. (archived PDF)
People interested in more theory behind this problem will enjoy Dennis Grant's Turbo Fundamentals Series.
Owners who run high levels of boost to little or no effect on their cars may have their base engine timing set incorrectly. Although the ECU advances the timing as much as possible during operation, it has a limited range. If the timing is pulled back excessively, the ECU may not have enough adjustment to re-set it back into the correct range. Retarded timing leads directly to a loss of power.
The ability to run high boost levels and still go slow appears to be directly related to timing problems - DSMers who have run 18-20 psi with retarded timing suddenly find themselves hitting fuel cut at 14 psi, once their base timing is set properly. They also find their car is faster at 14 psi than it was at 18 psi, a direct result of timing advance. If you boost like crazy but still can't get decent times, check your timing straight away. See here for some info on how to do it.
This question comes up a lot, mostly because people misunderstand what fuel cut is for, and why it occurs at all. For the answer to this, read this chapter of the ECU Primer.
The simple answer is that because fuel cut is pre-programmed into the ECU, there is no method of disabling it. There are no modifications that can do so, aside from an ECU upgrade that eliminates fuel cut. Upgraded fuel pumps, injectors, and fuel pressure regulators do nothing to avoid or eliminate fuel cut. NOTHING.
That being said, there are some methods (some cheap, some not) of postponing fuel cut. All the methods work on one principle: fooling the ECU into thinking there is less air entering the engine than, in fact, there is. This can be done by adding unmetered air, or by changing the sensor inputs used by the ECU to determine air mass. Of course, these methods usually mean the engines run leaner than stock. Again, read Chapter 7 of the ECU primer for details.
Budget Methods include:
An ECU upgrade to ECMLINK or AEM is the only way to really eliminate fuel cut
The dip stick is often usually forced out by excessive crankcase pressure. In many cases, however, this is not due to an increase in crankcase pressure - rather, it is due to a decrease in the holding power of the dip stick. Lots of these cars are over 5 years old, with many approaching the 10 year mark, and most rubber parts have lots their original resiliant nature. The rubber plug on the dip stick may have shrunk and hardened over time, causing the stick to come out more easily than before.
Read Jack's Transmissions PCV article.
If replacing the dip stick rubber doesn't help, the positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) valve is often at fault. This is an inexpensive little part that is supposed to vent excess pressure, but it can wear out or clog. A quick replacement may be in order.
Another possibility is replacing the breather hose with a small K&N valve cover filter, which will hopefully help to vent excess pressure. Bad turbo oil seals and worn piston rings are the next likely suspects.
Tip: Attach a small clamp near neck of oil tube. Then find a spring that will hold on to the diptick and attach other end of spring to clamp.
There is a TSB for this problem, number TSB080795, NHTSA Item Number: SB039984. Unfortunately, no summary or listing of this TSB is currently available on the web.
One DSMer suggested simply sticking a pin into the vent hole on the windshield washer reservoir cap. The stock hole is so small that it is hardly visible, and can easily get clogged. Cleaning or enlarging the hole keep pressure from building up in the system.
This is usually poor ignition, caused by:
Try swapping each one out until you fix the problem. Testing the components may or may not reveal the problem; many people have had components (especially wires) test ok, but perform badly on the car. Plug wires may also be loose in the coil pack, although they may look fine.
Other possible causes include
Those with an interest in spark plug theory will enjoy this post about Basic Theory of Spark Plug Operation.
The general consensus is that this is caused by the BOV, which can stick or plug. This appears to be especially true of the 2G BOV, although some 1G owners have had this problem as well.
Alexander Kowalski's Jan 27, 1999 fix to his off-throttle stumble went like this (edited for presentation):
"I took the BOV off a today for a closer look. I found some RTV plugging up a 3 mm diameter hole at the base of the BOV. This hole appears to be part of a passage in the BOV casting that travels straight up to the top. I am assuming it is some sort of return relief passage.
Not only did clearing the RTV solve my off throttle stumble, my BOV no longer sounds like a loud bird shriek between shifts. Its more like the soft 'phfft' sound I have associated with my two previous BOVs. Darn, other than scaring the heck out of my wife I really liked that sound."
Cleaning the BOV, replacing it or upgrading to a 1G unit should solve the problem. Owners of adjustable BOVs report that setting the BOV too tightly will cause this same problem, so a quick adjustment may be in order.
Owners who are having the problem with the engine RPM dropping abnormally low after letting off the throttle may be having problems with the speed sensor or idle switch on their cars. If one of these is malfunctioning the ECU may not realize the throttle is at idle until the engine RPM drops below the normal idle speed.
This problem is fuel starvation caused by fuel sloshing around in the tank during hard cornering. Depending on the direction of the turn, the fuel pump pickup can get uncovered, leaving the pump with nothing to pump but air.
Owing to differences in fuel tank design, 1G AWDs have this problem when executing hard left corners, while 2G FWD turbos have problems with hairpin right turns. In both cases the fuel pickups are on the side of the car which is on the inside of the turn; of course, the fuel wants to be on the outside (opposite) side of the car.
The only fix for this problem is to have enough fuel. Most recommend at least 1/4 tank of fuel, but some hardcore autoxers say they need at least 3/4 of a tank.
2G AWDs and 1G FWDs apparantly do not suffer from this problem as much, as their fuel pickups are located differently. Despite this, autocrossers may still run into the problem.
This is a symptom of a broken speed switch, which is a part of the speedometer in the instrument cluster assembly. With the switch inactive, the ECU does not know the car is moving and doesn't keep the idle high enough to operate the power brakes.
Sally Vegso reported that her pulsation problem was caused by using Dextron ATF in her automatic transmission. Replacing the fluid with Mitsubishi Diamond ATF solved the problem immediately.
Quite possibly none - the DSM engines seem remarkably tolerant of overreving. Dozens of DSMers have accidentally taken the engine waaay past redline for significant period of time without any damage. Read these posts for some good information on previous experiences with over-the-top engine speeds.
"[This is] ...caused by water evaporating in the exhaust stream. Occasional puffs [are] usually from condensation in the exhaust pipes (especially in humid areas) or a water balloon up your stove-pipe. Continual white smoke [is usually due to] a warped head/head gasket and coolant entering your combustion chambers. If you're really unlucky, might be from a cracked head."
Some people have reported that high boost levels may promote white smoke, for some reason. Turning the boost down some cures the problem. This might be related to worn out seals on the turbo, which can leak oil into the exhaust. A bad brake booster can potentially let brake fluid into the vacuum line, which also produces white smoke.
"This is caused by uncombusted [unburned] fuel. Could be plugs, timing, clogged air filter, air/fuel mixture, wires, coil, etc. Start with the cheapest answer and work your way up."
Please refer to David's Turbocharger Troubleshooting Chart
Lorrin Barth pointed out that a fourth cause, especially on rebuilt heads, may be poor fit between the valves and the valve guides.
Also check out David's Turbocharger Troubleshooting diagnostic chart for a comprehensive guide to smoking and other engine problems.
ccording to Pete Paraska, there are three ways oil can get into your intake:
#1 is true regardless of the age of the valve.
#2 is a symptom of blow-by, where oil is getting past the piston rings.
DSMers often install oil catch can [[What is a catch can?] in an effort to keep oil out of the intake.
No, this is normal. Exhaust gas temperatures on DSMs range from about 775 degC to 825 degC on-highway, depending on whether you are within or over the speed limit. Most materials start to get 'red' hot at about 800 degrees C. The only solution to this 'problem' is to take it easy on the throttle.
Unfortunately, it is typical for 1G cars to end up with cracks in the exhaust manifold, O2 sensor housing and/or turbocharger housing. There is not much that can be done to prevent this, short of replacing original 1G manifolds or O2 housings with their more robust 2G counterparts. This is obviously not much of an option for the turbocharger, given the stock 2G turbo is smaller than the stock 1G turbo, and is obviously no help to 2G owners.
Short of replacement, sometimes the offending parts can be welded to close the cracks. This does not prevent them from cracking again, however. Unless you get a good deal on welding, it is probably best to simply replace the parts (preferably with upgraded parts). Those with cracked manifolds should know that many aftermarket exhaust headers also have significant problems with cracking.
Many people who experience problems immediately or shortly after washing their engine have damaged the crankshaft angle sensor on the car. Without this sensor, the ECU cannot tell what position the crankshaft is in, and the engine cannot run.
Usually, people who wash their engine are able to cover the electrical sensors prior to washing. If this is done, the engine will probably start up fine right after washing. However, driving the car with a wet engine will create steam, which can get inside the crankshaft angle sensor housing. Once the car is shut off, the steam condenses into water, which wrecks the sensor.
Some owners are able to 'revive' their sensors, but most are dead. Some Digesters have investigated if they can be repaired, but so far nobody has been able to do so.
To prevent crank angle sensor damage, either wait until the engine is mostly dry before driving, or drive it for a while and then raise the hood to allow the steam to escape.
Video: (non descriptive) Project DSM Engine Bay Cleaning
Video: Tom's Turbo Garage VR4 Engine Detail
Here is one way to do the engine:
** Important. NEVER USE A PRESSURE WASHER **
Start with a cold engine.
Run the engine until the engine is warm to the touch.
Shut the car off.
Place plastic bags / Saran Wrap / Baggies over the
Choices of cleaner:
Spray and scrub the engine. Avoid getting water in the electrical connectors.
Use a light mist of water to rinse everything.
Once done, remove the bags and either wait until dry or start the engine (at your own risk) again with the hood up. Let the water evaporate.
OPTIONAL: Once the engine is up to temp, if you like your rubber (and painted parts) shiney (NOT THE BELTS!), spray regular Armor All on them, then go for a non dusty drive. In 30 mins, the heat applied to Armor All will have coated the rubber in shiney even coat.
Turbo models have low impedance injectors (2-3 ohms), and include a resistor pack in the electrical system. Non-turbo models (including the Spyder 2.4L) have high impedance injectors (13-16 ohms) and do not have a resistor pack.
The resistor pack is installed to ‘fool’ your ECU into thinking it is driving high impedance injectors. Vehicles that have low impedance injectors AND resistor packs have ECUs that use a saturated signal to operate low impedance injectors.
If you are unsure because your vehicle is modified, you can measure the resistance across the two electrical terminals of the injector. If the resistance is between 1.5 and 4.0 Ohm you have low impedance injectors. If the resistance is between 8 and 16 Ohm you have high impedance injectors.
Low impedance injectors are designed to be driven by peak and hold signals. Most of the OE manufacturers that produced cars with low-Z injectors chose a “workaround” to using the low-Z injectors since it wasn’t cost effective to produce an ECU with the necessary circuitry and injector drivers to produce these P&H signals for the few high performance cars that needed it.
The way they solved the problem was to add a resistor box into the fuel injector harness, thereby increasing the resistance in the circuit to the higher value needed to prevent the ECU injector drivers from overheating due to excessive current draw. (e.g. low-Z injector resistance is 3.0 Ohm, plus in-line resistor of 7.5 Ohm, making a total resistance of 10.5 Ohm, which is safe for the ECU).
For more information about Injectors, visit the Fuel Injector Clinic FAQ page
Everyone needs to read the the 1G idle VFAQ. 2G owners need a little more information - as provided by Dirk Koenig (edited for presentation):
"Under the hood, in the middle of the firewall,near the top of the engine compartment, there is a bundle of wires. In this bundle you should find a brown plastic plug. Open this plug (pocketing the very important cap for later installation) and follow the VFAQ instructions for grounding.
For the inside plug, while sitting in the drivers seat, grab the corner of the dash where the center console and the underside of the dashboard meet. You should now be holding the diagnostic port in your hand. Get under the dash and take a look at the plug. There is a pink wire going into it. This is the wire you should ground, how you do it is up to you. (I shoved the probe from my voltmeter into it and grounded the other end)."
There is also now a VFAQ for 2G idle adjust - see here for details.
The part number is Mitsubishi part #MD614948, available from any Mitsubishi dealer - even the ones that don't know what it is.
You would already know this if you had checked your shop manual. (You do have a shop manual, right?) Also, owners of late 1996 to 1999 DSMs need read no further - base timing cannot be adjusted on these engines - any attempt to do so will result in a 'check engine' light.
Adjustment of the base engine timing is done through adjusting the crankshaft angle sensor. There is a trick, and here it is : the ECU normally controls the engine timing, so unless you disable the ECU control, you are not seeing the base engine timing when you hook up your timing light. Instead, you are viewing the ECU-controlled timing, which may be substantially different. Adjusting the timing without first disabling the ECU control will have little effect, as the ECU will re-adjust the timing to the original value.
Fortunately, the factory provided an easy way to disable the ECU timing control - a small electrical connector in the engine bay. All you have to do is connect it to a ground to temporarily disable ECU timing. On 1Gs and 1995-1996 2Gs, the connector is located on the firewall, near the middle. (Owners of 1997+ cars please note: these engines lack the timing adjustment connector, and timing cannot be adjusted.)
After you ground this connector, hook up the timing light and check if the engine timing is +5 degrees BTDC . (For instructions on how to use a timing light, check Brad Bauer's Timing Light FAQ.) Timing adjustment is done by adjusting the crankshaft angle sensor. After the adjustment is complete, unhook the connector and re-check the timing, which (owing to the ECUs intervention) should now be around +8 degrees BTDC.
Please note that it is possible for the operator to set the timing further ahead than +5 deg BTDC. Doing so will not generally help power output, and may limit or disable the ECUs ability to safeguard your engine. See Chapter 6 in the ECU Primer for details why.
The reason is that the datalogger system grounds the connector in the diagnostic plug that sets the ECU to idle speed set mode, rather than timing check mode. In other words, when you ground the timing check connector with the datalogger plugged in, the ECU will go to idle speed set mode instead of timing check mode. Unplugging the logger will fix the problem and allow the ECU to enter timing check mode.
According to Todd Day, the acknowledged expert on DSM ECUs, this is not a good idea for 1Gers in search of serious speed. He also stated there are at least 17 temperature-dependant tables in the ECU, so skewing the engine temperature might not be a good thing. However, many people have installed them with no ill effects.
It is possible that the lower temperature thermostat will operate ok in the summer but not in the winter. Some owners have commented that their datalogger temperatures stay in the 190 degree range in the summer when using a 180 degree thermostat. This is usually high enough to keep the car operating as intended. In the winter, though, the average temperature drops too low, and the car never exits "warm-up" mode. This causes the car to run rich and drop significant gas mileage.
2Gers are different. Apparantly, 2G cars have a 180 deg. thermostat from the factory, and at least one DSMer has installed a 170 degree one. However, the same caveats about lowering from the stock temperature apply equally well to 2G cars.
Check the FAQ Locator, since Brad Bauer has had the VFAQ for this subject available for some time now. It's also discussed in the DSM Top Ten FAQ.
Many people have installed these devices. It is now commonplace to see EGR blockoff plates sold by private individuals on the DSM Parts Trader and DSMtrader.com. However, they may not work quite the way you think.
Experience has shown that the only true benefit to installing an EGR blockoff plate is that it helps keep the engine intake clean. This is because the EGR recirculates dirty exhaust gases back to the intake. The carbon and other contaminants from the exhaust tend to coat the intake piping.
While it is true that you should theoretically get a performance increase by blocking off the EGR, in practice the change is so slight as to be negligible. Even this advantage is debateable, since some people claim the EGR only functions when the car is not boosting in any case. Also, 1994 California cars and 1995+ models are equipped with additional sensors to check that the EGR is operating correctly. Installing a blockoff plate will probably cause a 'Check Engine' light on these vehicles.
Blocking the EGR should also affect emissions performance - again, in theory. In practice, it has been argued that the EGR valve is so small on our cars as to provide little benefit for emissions.
Here are a few videos to help you
Checked the FAQ Locator. Tom Stangl has put together a comprehensive list of VFAQs on the subject.
This idea has been discussed before. No DSM owner is very enthusiastic about having their engine wrecked by such a minor event as a broken balance shaft belt.
Unfortunately, the consensus was that there was not enough room between the belts to provide a strong enough shield. The shield would have to be so thin that the belt would likely tear right through it, causing it to contribute to the problem rather than solve it.
Those who are interested in such protection may wish to remove the balance shafts completely. See this section of the 1000AAQ and theFAQ Locator for the latest information.
Micheal Hamilton did this with his car, after he became dissatisfied with the factory automatic tensioner. Not for the average owner, it requires frequent and consistent timing belt inspections to ensure everything is A-OK.
Tom Stangl has a VFAQ on the subject.
The disadvantage to removing the shafts is increased engine noise and vibration. By removing the balance shafts, you are removing the primary mechanism for controlling engine shake. The engine will sound rougher, noisier, and 'buzzier' than normal.
As for the advantages, opinions vary, and the debate is too exhaustive to report in full here. Proponents have the following reasons for removing the shafts:
Of these, only the removal of the balance shaft belt is uncontested, and is most cited as the reason for removing the balance shafts. Owners who have experienced $2000+ in engine damage as a result of a broken balance shaft belt generally don't want to repeat the experience.
Opponents counteract the other claims with arguments that the power increase from the engine might be negligible, and removing the shafts might affect long-term engine durability. Some say that getting the engine balanced and blueprinted will alleviate durability problems, but others disagree with this.
It would seem that claims of increased horsepower from this mod are difficult to make. Todd Day is highly skeptical about any claim of power increase by reducing rotating mass. He points out (quite correctly) that once a rotating mass is spinning, it takes much less energy to keep it spinning than it did to get it spinning in the first place. This makes any static estimate of power difficult to credit.
Overall, the majority of owners who commented on it said they were happy with the mod, and found the increased engine shake quite bearable. Of course, most of these individuals were probably enthusiast drivers or racers, and so don't mind the extra noise.
Lots of owners have done this. In addition to simply strengthening the existing mounts, many people found that their stock mounts were torn or broken. Others say that stiffer mounts reduce the chances of wheel hop, which is in itself a large benefit. However, stiffer motor mounts don't really contribute to more power - it simply helps a high-power DSM stay together during hard launches.
There are several vendors that offer upgraded motor mounts for DSMs. Some are complete replacements, while others are inserts that fit into the holes of the stock motor mounts.
For those interested in more do-it-yourself solutions, Tom Tharp successfully improved the motor mounts on his 1G FWD by adding homemade polyethylene inserts. He wrote a VFAQ on the subject, which you would have found if you had looked in the FAQ Locator(hint, hint).
Other people have done similar things by simply filling the stock motor mounts with silicone or urethane caulking. This is apparantly a commonplace trick on the Nissan SE-R mailing list, and has been written up by an unknown SE-R owner here.
DSM owners who have tried similar methods of strengthening the mounts include Mike O'Flaherty, Spencer Hutchings, and Mark Purney, who wrote another FAQ on the subject here.
On a different note, Colby Leonard had a solid aluminum motor mount machined for his car. Read his impressions on this mod here. Also, Colby Leaonard had a solid aluminum mount fabricated for a small cost
Not a popular or often-discussed upgrade on DSMs, it nevertheless seems to show up regularly in highly modified engines. It also seems to be catching on more with non-turbo owners interested in performance mods, perhaps partly because of their middling price point. Scot Gray has reported good results using cams from the now-defunct Mutiny Racerwerx shop, and many of the faster cars include cams in their modifications list.
On the flip side, those who have installed new cams have often reported negative side effects, such as low vacuum and poor idle, which appear to be endemic to cam changes. Much more rare are first-hand reports of verified performance gains, making DSM cams a doubtful upgrade when compared to other modifications. (Owners of highly modified engines often change several things at once, making the effect of any single component unverifiable.)
To add to the confusion, Leon Reitman actually removed upgrade cams from his car after finding they provided no performance gain, despite HKS' claim of 11hp. David Buschur stated here that cams would not be a worthwhile upgrade for 99% of drivers, as the cam change only makes more power in the higher RPM ranges. It has also been reported by Kyle Zingg in the Dec. 21, 1998 Digest that a prominent vendor recommends against changing the cams, as the stock cams provide the most power.
The bottom line is that most owners do a great deal of work on their DSMs before thinking about cams. Turbo, intercooler and other such advanced upgrades are known to provide significant gains, so owners are recommended to pursue them first.
The Last Word: The more modern cams for DSMs can be great - as long as you have enough air running through the rest of the system to make them worthwhile. Most people opt to 264/264s, but 272s are - theoretically - also available They can be hard to get a hold of,
Several people have done variations on this. A fairly elaborate scheme can also be seen here.
The Last Word: With the advent of the MAF Translator, a cold-air intake system is a lot more practical than it used to be. Check the vendor websites for current offerings.
Lots of people. Opinions vary on driveability, but most racers seem to like them.
A popular option is the XACT Streetlite Flywheel.
Tom Stangl has several VFAQs up on how to install the fuel pumps, and recently added a section showing the specifications for common upgrade fuel pumps.
Gary Selph did try this mod on his upgraded Alamo sidemount intercooler. His testing shows that the fan makes no difference in intercooler performance.
On the other hand, Mark Purney installed one on his stock sidemount intercooler. He reported good results with his installation, although other owners have found it makes no appreciable difference. Unfortunately, Mark has no experimental data to verify his results.
Mark and Gary seem to concur that the stock intercooler might benefit from the fan, but upgraded units are unlikely to benefit. Gary also noted that a fan might work well with an intercooler sprayer installed.
Most people who research this topic come to the conclusion that it is cheaper to sell the NT and purchase a turbocharged DSM, rather than attempt to convert the NT to turbocharged form. It has been pointed out that the difference between a turbo FWD and a non-turbo FWD 1G DSM was roughly $1000 in 1998 - suffice it to say that the conversion will be significantly more than that, regardless of the method chosen.
With AWD DSMs running in the $1500 - $8,000 area, why would you want to do this? Do yourself a favor and just buy an existing AWD.
This has been done on occasion. 2G turbo pistons are a higher compression ratio (8.5:1 instead of 7.8:1) and are capable of delivering more power, with a higher probability of detonation. The same should be true of 1G NT pistons (9.0:1), but the NT pistons are not designed to withstand the stresses inherent in turbocharging, making the 2G turbo pistons the next best choice.
In most cases, the 1G connecting rods must be machined in order to fit the 2G pistons.
As a side note, Mitsubishi sells factory overbore pistons in sizes 0.5mm and 1.0mm larger than stock.
All 1G 2.0L heads are the same except for the camshafts. Apparantly the 1990 heads had slightly smaller coolant passages, but the difference is not enough to be significant. Also, prepared non-turbo heads had a plug where the turbo oil feed would connect on turbo models.
So far no one has done this swap. The change is not attractive since 2G turbo pistons have a higher compression ratio (8.5:1) than stock 1G turbo pistons (7.8:1), meaning the 1G pistons will produce less power.
2G NT pistons, despite their higher compression ratio, are not generally considered suitable for a swap into a turbo engine because they were never designed to handle the stresses of turbocharged engines. This is the same argument that keeps people from swapping 1G NT pistons into 1G T engines.
Also, since 1G rods must be modified to accept 2G pistons, it is safe to assume that 2G rods would either have to be modified to accept 1G pistons, or replaced with 1G rods, making any such swap that much more complicated.
Anyone interested in such changeovers should know that Mitsubishi sells factory overbore pistons in sizes 0.5mm and 1.0mm larger than stock. Ben France gives the details here.
Not so far. This modification is not likely to be popular, since the 2G engine is more expensive than a 1G engine. Also, it has other characteristics (such as a smaller stock turbocharger) that may make it unattractive to 1G owners.
Anyone wishing to attempt this swap should be warned that it is not trivial. Although many of the mechanical attachments will work correctly, some 2G engine sensors operate differently than 1G sensors, making it virtually impossible to use without an ECU and wiring swap as well.
You would already know this (hint, hint) if you had looked at the FAQ Locator. Alexander Shikhmuradov, Lowell Foo, and John Christou (among others) have done this, and helpfully provided instructions to Eric Porter, who made this Mini How-To page of how to do the wiring. The full VFAQ is here, courtesy of Dallace Marable.
The reasons for doing this are threefold:
Doing this swap generally requires some type of fuel management computer, as the 2G MAS is not a drop-in replacement for the 1G MAS. However, Keith McDonnell reported that the 2G MAS will operate almost perfectly with the stock 1G computer when larger 550 cc injectors are also fitted. The bigger injectors add more fuel to offset the additional 'uncounted' air flowing through the larger MAS. Keith was experimenting on a Galant VR-4, , which could possibly behave slightly differently than other DSMs, but his results were confirmed second-hand by Dallace Marable. For more details, read his Keith's post here.
2G manifolds are a bolt-on replacement for the 1G manifolds. 2G manifolds are larger than 1G manifolds, are easier to port, and are more resistant to cracking and warping. Those who do this changeover might have to grind away a small part of the 2G manifold to clear the 1G engine parts.
Jason Neal had this done with his car, buying a 1990 engine to put into his 1997 FWD. Details on how he did it can be read here.
Changing the 2G cylinder head for the 1G version has also been done. Road Race Engineering has done this swap to a few cars. Besides checking out their web site article, read Mike's archive post on the subject, and his subsequent follow-up post. Josh Rivel also successfully did this swap, although it took a lot of tuning to get the engine operating correctly. Also, Todd Hayashi posted a list of potential gotchas while doing this conversion, and Nathan Crisman described a changeover kit he once had for sale here. Unfortunately, he never had a chance to use it.
Finally, there is an excellent photo gallery walk-though of installing a 1G head onto a 2G here, courtesy of Shawn Gradek. The photography on this site is worth any download time you may encounter.
Those who are seriously interested in this type of changeover must read the archives on the subject to obtain the latest information.
According to some DSMers, you can use a one-wire oxygen sensor on your car instead of the four-wire OEM version. However, there may be some restrictions on their use.
Stock DSM oxygen sensors include a heating element that allows them to heat up to operating temperature faster, especially in cold weather. It is almost certain that a large number of owners have oxygen sensors with broken heaters. They don't notice the lack because the heater is not essential for O2 sensor operation. At worst, the oxygen sensor will take some additional time to heat up to operating temperature, and gas mileage might drop a little bit. So two of the four wires on the O2 sensor may certainly be considered optional, especially for those living in warmer climates.
The one wire on the non-DSM sensor is the oxygen sensor signal. Since there is no ground wire, the sensor must use the mounting point as ground. There is a small possiblity that this point might not be a good ground on some cars. Cars with upgraded downpipes might be suspect, as there is a grounding strap on the OEM downpipe that is frequently removed during the upgrade. This may affect the ground reference of the oxygen sensor to some extent.
Even in the worst-case scenario, this is highly unlikely to affect the operation of a stock or near-stock DSM. The precise reading of the oxygen sensor is not important, and is not used by the engine computer, so the ECU will not 'see' any shift in ground potential on the single-wire O2 sensor.
Owners of upgraded cars who use the O2 sensor for tuning purposes might have to be a little more careful. In many cases, owners rely on their oxygen sensors providing a consistent (if not accurate) reading. A shift of 0.100V might be enough to make their tuning more difficult. Thus, individuals who switch to a 1-wire sensor may have to spend some time re-learning their tuning methods to compensate for any differences in the new setup.
It must be noted, however, that tuning by OEM oxygen sensor is quite possibly the worst method of tuning a DSM. Owners with upgraded cars will hopefully have better and more reliable methods than relying on their O2 sensor.
- stock fuel system, pump gas: 15 psi, or an O2 sensor reading of 0.85V minimum, or an EGT reading of 1650 degF maximum.
- upgraded fuel pump, stock turbo, pump gas: same as above.
- upgraded fuel pump and injectors, stock turbo: same as above. You will probably hit fuel cut first. Here's why.
- turbo upgrades: varies, but typically lower than 15 psi. You'll need a fuel management system before you can do much of anything more than that. Here's why.
Owing to individual variations between cars, the 0.85V O2 reading mentioned above should be treated with extreme care. Most people prefer 0.90V or better.
By changing the intake pressure in your car, you are changing the mass of air entering the engine. In order to maintain a proper air/fuel mixture, more fuel must be delivered to the engine to compensate. Therefore, the 'safe' amount of boost on any DSM is primarily determined by the fuel delivery system in the car. Also, local factors will change the actual mass of air entering the engine, which again changes the required fuel.
Under all circumstances, remember this simple rule: intake air pressure does not equal intake air flow. Flow is what matters.
The amount of boost pressure you can run without risking damage to your engine depends on the following factors:
There may be other factors that affect maximum intake pressure. Those interested in a more detailed discussion can read Morgan D'Antonio's post about what limits boost levels on DSMs.
In the above list, the fuel pump and fuel injectors determine the amount of fuel that can be delivered to the engine in a given time. Aftermarket pumps and larger injectors increase fuel delivery capacity.
Turbo and intercooler efficiency determines the temperature of the air going into the engine at any given pressure. Lower temperatures reduce combustion temperatures, but also increase the actual mass of air entering the cylinders. Colder ambient temperatures also increase air mass. Higher altitude cars, though, have less dense air to push than sea level cars, meaning less air mass enters the engine.
MAS modifications introduce an additional element of error into the mass air calculations done by the ECU. Because the ECU, under some conditions, does not check to see that the amount of fuel provided is adequate to safely operate the engine, the operator must monitor the engine operation. Most 'free' mods do not change the MAS operation enough to cause problems, but there is always a small possibility of engine damage, as well as idle and misfire problems.
Gasoline octane is important in that it also reduces the occurance of knock. Running too much boost on bad gasoline with leave your engine pinging like crazy, forcing the ECU to cut boost and reduce timing, thereby losing power.
The rule, accoding to leading DSM performance authorities, is to run at least 0.85V from the oxygen sensor at all times. This corresponds to exhaust gas temperatures of about 1650 degrees F maximum. Failure to observe these limits will often result in melted engine parts.
As a general guideline for those without air/fuel or EGT gauges, sea-level cars may safely run 15 psi (1.0 bar), with the stock fuel pump and turbocharger. The addition of other mods does not generally change this figure, provided the intake pressure remains at 15 psi maximum. This is the level that most owners run in their cars, at least until further upgrades are possible.
For those not operating near sea level, the 'safe' boost you can run seems to increase by about 1 psi (0.07 bar) for each 1000' over sea level. For example, a car at 3000' over sea level can safely run as much as 18 psi of boost. This rule is less reliable than the above 15psi rule, though, since high-altitude owners are understandably reluctant to repeat the boost-related engine damage experienced by some unlucky sea-level owners.
Those owners with upgraded fuel pumps may also run higher boost levels than 15 psi. If you want to do this, presumeably you have installed air/fuel (A/F) and/or exhaust gas temperature (EGT) gauges in your car to monitor the engine operation. Moving to higher boost levels without at least one of these instruments can be hazardous to your cars health. Provided you meet the above-mentioned 0.85/1650 rules, there is no limit to the boost you can run until you hit fuel cut.
It should be noted, however, that the stock DSM turbochargers are pretty much incapable of making more power somewhere around the 15-17 psi level. Above this limit, the turbocharger heats the intake air so much during compression that any power gained from additional air density is lost. Many people have reported this effect, which leads to less power at higher boost pressures.
Also, higher boost pressures exact more stress on the engine components, regardless of the air mass. After all, 18 psi is still higher than 15 psi. Owners that run pressures higher than 15 psi may experience failures on other components that cannot take the stress. One good example is the intake manifold gasket, which was made of rubber in 1990-1992 cars, and sometimes cannot handle the increased pressure. (Fortunately, the replacement 1993-1994 gasket is metal.)
Those interested in the factors responsible for limiting boost should read Morgan D'Antonio's take on what really limits your boost levelson a DSM.
Owners of newly upgraded turbochargers often find, to their dismay, that they experience a severe loss of power at the same boost levels they ran with the old turbo. This is because that the upgraded turbocharger has better flow rates and efficiency than the old turbo - that's why it's an upgrade - and the stock ECU/fuel system cannot handle it. Too much air is entering the engine, leading to low O2 sensor readings, high EGTs, even severe knocking under acceleration. The only solution to this problem (besides lowering boost, or removing the turbo upgrade) is to purchase a fuel management computer of some type. These devices allow the owner to 'trick' the ECU and manually adjust the fuel delivery back to correct levels.
Owners which already have a fuel computer installed should run a mimimum of 0.85V from the O2 sensor, and a EGT maximum of 1650 degrees F. Exceeding these values may result in engine damage.
There have been many 'safe' O2 sensor readings reported for DSMs. However, there is a growing consensus that O2 readings alone are not enough to guarantee safe operation of the engine.
DSM oxygen sensors should be thought of as more akin to oxygen 'thermostats'. They are designed to 'switch' states, from high to low, very rapidly, around the oxygen level that corresponds to a stoichiometric 14.7:1 air/fuel ratio. As long as they do this, there is no reason for them to be accurate anywhere else.
The principle of monitoring the A/F ratio is to check what the oxygen sensor is reading at A/F ratios that are greatly different from the switch point. However, the oxygen sensors may not be accurate at these levels, so any readings that are taken must be treated with caution.
Evidence to this effect is growing thanks to the introduction of the TMO datalogger, which gathers information about engine operation directly from the ECU. There have been many cases where owners have used the datalogger on their car, only to find (to their utter surprise) that despite sky-high A/F meter readings, they are losing power from not having enough fuel in the air/fuel mixture.
Another problem is that the O2 sensor reading shown by the A/F gauge may not exactly correspond to the O2 sensor reading inside the ECU. This is due to differences in the grounding points of the two devices, and can easily lead to a 0.1V difference, making the A/F meter reading 0.1V higher than the ECU reading. Thus, an owner might think that they are running a safer A/F ratio than, in fact, they are.
This does not mean that A/F meters are useless. Their fast reaction time and simplicity make them an excellent choice for monitoring relatively safe, early-stage modifications to DSMs. They simply have limitations that make them less-than-ideal for precision engine tuning, and new users need to be aware of them.
Having said all of that, authorities in the field have stated that 0.85V is the absolute minimum you can run. Most people prefer 0.90V or 0.95V, but running these levels is simply a guideline - it is not a guarantee that your engine is safe, or producing maximum power. This is because differences in engines, altitude, barometric pressure, gasoline, and other conditions all contribute towards varying this number.
The only sure method by which anyone can state that they must run a certain minimum O2 reading is if they have determined the perfect level for their individual car through experimentation. This type of experimentation is time-consuming. Many racers spend years perfecting their setups.
No - this is normal. You are viewing the ECUs attempts to supply exactly the right amount of fuel to the engine to achieve stoichiometric operation (equal masses of fuel and air). The cycling also means your O2 sensor is healthy.
For more information on how the oxygen sensor is supposed to behave, read the The Essential Primer on the DSM ECU.
If this occurs at idle, or during prolonged periods of idling, the oxygen sensor is likely too cold to cycle properly. Warming up the engine somewhat will raise the sensor temperature into a normal operating range. While DSM oxygen sensors are equipped with a heater to aid in keeping the sensor hot, many people find the heater is either broken or simply not adequate to the task of keeping the oxygen sensor hot.
If this occurs during normal cruising speeds, your oxygen sensor may be on its last legs. Poor cycling is often an early symptom of impending sensor failure. If it persists long enough, the ECU will throw the code for the O2 sensor, but the ECU is pretty conservative on this; the sensor has to really be DEAD dead for the ECU to notice.
On the other hand, the O2 sensor reading is supposed to peg high under acceleration. This is because the ECU no longer cares about theoxygen sensor reading, and supplies extra fuel to keep the engine cool. This is known as open-loop operation. The method of changing fuel delivery based on the oxygen sensor signal (which causes O2 readout cycling) is called closed-loop operation.
For more information on open and closed-loop operation, read the The Essential Primer on the DSM ECU.
If you just started your car, the oxygen sensor is cold, and will not give any reading for a little while. This can also happen if the car has been idling for a long period of time.
Also, if you have removed the lower honeycomb from your MAS, your oxygen sensor reading at idle will likely drop to zero (or almost zero) at idle. This is a common side-effect of removing the lower honeycomb, and does not represent a problem. This effect is only affects O2 sensor readings at idle, and will not change the sensor or car behavior while cruising or while accelerating.
For more information on how the ECU handles fuel, read the The Essential Primer on the DSM ECU.
The ECU only checks the oxygen sensor under specific circumstances. If it doesn't get to check the sensor, it can't tell if the sensor is dead.
According to Todd Day of Technomotive:
" Your car must undergo a "cruise" session above 45 MPH for 30 minutes or two "cruise" sessions for 20 minutes (depending on [model] year) before the ECU will flag a dead O2 sensor. At least for the 1Gs - this probably got a lot tighter for 2Gs. This is why a lot of people won't ever see a code get thrown for O2 in their daily commute driving."
The best way to determine if an O2 sensor is dead is to monitor it with an air/fuel (A/F) gauge.
This depends a lot on where the EGT probe is mounted, as pre-turbo EGTs are always higher than post-turbo EGTs. It also varies somewhat from car to car.
In the past, HKS has recommended that downpipe installations not exceed 1380 degF, and pre-turbo (exhaust manifold) installations not exceed 1550 degF.
For more information, see Brad Baur's EGT Gauge Installation FAQ and Tom Stangl's Westech EGT Install FAQ. According to Tom, 1650 degF (900 degC) is the ideal point at which to finish a 1/4 mile run.
Do yourself a favor and get a datalogger. EGTs are nice, but they're not the be-all of engine monitoring - not by a long shot.
There is a great guide written here by MrBoxx of DSMTuners:
You want to go with the non projected type plugs like BR6ES, BR7ES, BR8ES.
BR6ES = Stock to 20psi
BR7ES = 20psi to 30psi
BR8ES = 30+psi
Non projected plugs help fight against spark blow out in high boost applications.
If plug fouling occurs, go one step hotter and monitor performance and results.
Except for 'trick' plugs, DSMers have used many brands with good results. NGKs appear to the be the most often-reported favorite.
This is only a legitimate question for 1990 owners, as the 1990 shop manual had a mistake in the plug gapping specifications. The correct numbers are listed, but they are switched around between the turbo and non-turbo cars. According to TSBs 26-27-89 and 26-61-89, the correct gap for 1990 turbo cars is 0.028 to 0.031, while non-turbo cars use the larger 0.039 to 0.043 gap.
See this article: Guide to Reading Spark Plug Performance
Some owners experience idle or misfire problems after installing platinum plugs. Others use them with no ill effects. Most owners prefer to stick with the non-platinum plugs. Problems seem to be more prevalent on turbo cars.
With few exceptions, spark plug wires either work, or they don't. As with the 'trick' spark plugs described above, nobody has been able to prove a performance gain by using larger-than-normal or unconventional spark plug wires. They continue to be a popular upgrade, however, with Magnecores being mentioned the most often.
Owing to a number of owners who have experienced longevity problems with cheaper wires, it is possible that the superior build quality of the larger wires means they will last longer than 'normal' wires. This, in itself, would be a reason to get bigger wires, since replacing wires every 6-12 months isn't any fun. Also, plug wires can sometimes be tricky to diagnose, since tests will sometimes fail to reveal the wires are no good.
Nology and others manufacture 'special' wires that are supposed to provide better performance.Dennis Grant has some things to say about 'trick' plug wires. (You should also read the rest of the series.) Most Digesters concur with Dennis that 'trick' wires fall in into the category of 'magic' products.
While this post is from the Volvo forum: What is a Wideband, and why do I need it? And Basic tuning tips [archive copy], it is a good read and applies to turbo cars.
Turbo 4g63 Guesstimates
block- 85-90 lbs (empty)
crank - 35lbs
head with out cams - 35 lbs
longblock (head,rods,pistons....) 275 - 300lbs
Replace whatever non mitsubolts and non mitsu washers you have. (Yes. Even ARP)
Use stock Mitsubishi bolts and turbo washers. (Thanks Salomon Ponte) Also make sure to use Nickel based anti seize on any bolt you put in.
If stock bolts break, they are easier to drill out than some of the stonger non Mitsubishi bolts.
With the extreme temperatures these bolts see, if you want extra peace of mind, do not re-use turbo bolts and can replace with new Mitsubishi stockers every time you crack them loose to remove the turbo (not cheap! 60$).
They aren't long. 10-15mm should do the trick.
You can also refer to : What size bolt do I need for X part?
Step 1: Replace the o-ring.
MD619648 would be used on a 90-94 Style sensor.
MD622021 is just for the 97-99 DSM/EVO 8/9 sensor.
Felpro #: 420
CAS o-ring size is P30 (w=3.5mm, ID=29.7mm)
Autozone also sells a small pack of "Distributor O-rings". There is one in there that fits perfectly and has worked for me. It come sin a pack of 8 I believe, varying in sizes.
Go to Lowes / Home Depot and get some pluming o rings
If still leaking after replacing o-ring, keep reading.
Add RTV between the cam position sensor support and the head, and new gasket (MD329503) and or RTV between the support and cover
JNZTuning writes: http://www.dsmtalk.com/forums/showthread.php?t=235353#9
The gasket on the front of the housing (3 bolt) is part number MD329503. If it's not too severely damaged/worn, you could always try a *THIN* coat of RTV to patch it in the meanwhile.
You already have the other seal for the CAS itself (MD622021), so the only other seal is on the back side where it seals to the head. If you're getting leakage out of the front cover, I would probably not only fix the 3-bolt cover gasket, but reseal the RTV on the rear where it sits against the head.
I grabbed a used one that was sitting back in the parts bin (please excuse the child-like use of Paint). You can see in the 2nd picture (arrow) where the groove is that you need to RTV.
Make sure that you clean off both surfaces (head and CAS) to remove the old RTV and oil.
You should be oil-free after that.
DSMLink Tuning Guide
For those of you that have a DSM and have DSMLink, Nick (NickNorth11) and Shane2GSX wrote this basic tuning guide for the DSMLink community.
It's been reviewed by the experts and creators of DSMLink for accuracy. Figured I'd throw it up on here since we have some DSM's and I think a few of you have asked me about DSMLink.
Basic DSMLink Tuning Guide
(This guide is exactly what the title implies, a basic guide to tuning. It is not intended to teach you, or tell you, everything needed to tune a DSM. Research will be required to fully understand the terms, values, and procedures below. With that said, the people involved with any and all aspects of this guide are NOT responsible for ANY damage done to your car.)
Before You Start:
Approximation of desired values:
(Some of these must be obtained manually and some via DSMLink. Others are simply values to monitor and keep within given parameters.)
Setting Initial Parameters:
Closed Loop Tuning (Cruise/Idle):
Method 1 – Airflow Metering:
Method 2 – Fuel Delivery:
Open Loop Tuning (WOT) Fuel & Timing:
MCCC = Mopar Combustion Chamber Cleaner
Seafoam is another brand of Combustion Chamber Cleaner
A combustion chamber cleaner cleans carburetors, intake manifolds, intake and exhaust valves, pistons and combustion chambers. It also removes deposits, eliminates carbon knock and restores performance.
Some people swear by it, others are on the fence. YMMV.
Mopar Combustion Chamber Cleaner/Conditioner is really good for removing carbon deposits, but the directions on the can are not so useful. The following directions outline the way that professional mechanics have been using the cleaner for years -- they were finally published in TSB 18-31-97 for 1996-98 Jeep 4.0 Liter misfire conditions:
There are quite a few things that could cause this.
#1. Check the Power Transistor Unit. (located on the intake manifold generally) This provides signal to coil from ECU and also provides RPM for tach.
#2. Check the Coil Pack.
#3. Your ECU might be taking a dump. Get it tested.
#4. Bad ground or a short.
Diagnosing a No-Start
This guide is obviously not meant to offer a complete list of things that could be keeping your car from starting. However, checking these things BEFORE posting your problem will help us better understand your situation, and give you a better chance of getting the right advice very quickly.
If you donÂ’t have a Factory Service Manual, check out this link: http://www.lilevo.com/mirage/
And we beginÂ…
So, you go out to your car one morning, and, lo and behold, it wonÂ’t start. The DSM Gods must be angry with you. Â…Time to start the diagnostic process. For quick reference, I have sectioned this article off into the basic problem areas by symptom. Find the area (highlighted in Bold) that most closely matches your problem area(s)Â….or just read the whole thing, so youÂ’ll know what to look for on that fateful day, whenever it may occur.
I Â– Does the car NOT crank, or crank slowly?
If the car doesnÂ’t crank at all, or cranks very slowly, areas to investigate include the following, in order of likelihood:
1. Check your battery terminals and cables. Loose, corroded, or broken battery terminals or cables will drain your battery. If the car cranks very slowly, your battery may have some juice left. If not, it may be completely dead.
2. Using a DVOM (Digital Volt/Ohm Meter), check the voltage on your battery. Red probe goes to the positive post; black probe goes to the negative post. If battery voltage reads low (anything lower than 12 volts is low!), your battery has been drained. This could be due to any number of things. Did you leave an interior light on by mistake? Are your battery terminals loose or corroded? Did your battery ground out on an aftermarket strut bar? Is your alternator going bad? Take your battery to your local AutoZone, OÂ’Reilly, Advance Auto, or similar parts house. Most of these chains offer free battery testing and free charging (especially if you bought your battery from them).
3. If you have an Automatic, is the car in Park or Neutral? If you are M/T, are you depressing the clutch all the way when starting the car? If yes, your Neutral Safety Switch or Clutch Safety Switch (respectively) may be faulty. Refer to FSM for proper testing procedure, or just unplug it.
4. When you turn the key, do you hear the starter click? If not, time to check it. Refer to FSM for complete testing procedure. Check the starter relay first. On a 1g, this is located under the dash, to the immediate left of the steering column. There are three relays down there Â– the starter relay is the one in the middle. With KOEO and clutch depressed, battery voltage should be present at the relay. On a 2g, the starter relay is located near the radio.
5. Check the Alternator fuse (80A in a 1g, 100A in a 2g). This is located in the main fuse box under the hood, and should be the largest fuse in there, making it easy to spot. Careful Â– itÂ’s also the only fuse that is secured by a bolt, so keep this in mind when attempting to remove it. (See image below for location)
6. Pull the upper cover off of your timing belt and make sure you have not snapped or damaged the timing belt. If you are at all in doubt about the condition of the belt, pull it out and replace it. If there is any possibility that you could have jumped timing, run a compression test to verify if (or, more likely, how many) valves were bent.
II Â– The car cranks, but just wonÂ’t start.
There are four main things a car needs to run: Fuel, Fire (Spark) at the right time (Engine Timing), and Compression. Once the car has all of these things, it really has no choice but to start Â– remember, cars are just machines. With a car that cranks but doesnÂ’t run, the first thing you need to do is diagnose which one(s) of these four basic necessities youÂ’re lacking.
1. Checking for Fuel: The DSM fuel system is fairly straightforward. Sparing you the painstaking details, there are a couple of things you will need to do to verify that youÂ’re getting fuel. Try spraying some starter fluid into the cylinders and try to turn the car over. If the car will start, you are most likely not getting fuel.
Start by removing the fuel line from the filter (passenger) side of the rail (Careful! The fuel system is under pressure, and since you canÂ’t start your car, you canÂ’t relieve the pressure in the lines. Keep your face away from the fuel line, and wear protective eye gear. Imagine sticking your face in front of a bottle of champagne before uncorking it. Get the idea?)Â…Stick the end of the fuel line into a clear container and have a friend crank the car (or turn on the fuel pump via the check connector behind the battery). In a normally operating fuel system, plenty of clean gasoline should fill the bottle pretty quickly.
If you donÂ’t see a lot of fuel, or if it looks nasty, change your fuel filter (refer to VFAQ). If nothing comes out at all, you will need to make sure your fuel pump is turning on. Open the fuel filler door and remove the filler cap. Have a friend put his or her ear up to the filler hole and listen as you crank the car (in a 1g, you have to crank it! Putting the key in Â“ONÂ” will accomplish a whole lot of nothing). You can also power the fuel pump via the check connector. Stock fuel pumps will emit a faint buzzing or whining noise when they turn on. Larger aftermarket pumps (especially Walbro) will usually be loud enough for you to clearly hear inside the car yourself. If you donÂ’t hear the Â“whineÂ”, thatÂ’s your problem Â– your fuel pump isnÂ’t powering on. Possible reasons for this include a faulty fuel pump, disconnected or damaged wiring to the pump, or a faulty MPI relay, among a few other things.
If you are getting fuel to the fuel rail and your fuel pump is operating, but the car still doesnÂ’t start, itÂ’s time to consider fuel pressure. Pull the return hose from the Fuel Pressure Regulator and see if itÂ’s wet with fuel after cranking the engine. If itÂ’s dry, your Fuel Pressure Regulator could be faulty. Buy or borrow a fuel pressure gauge (these are fairly inexpensive, and can be purchased from any AutoZone, OÂ’Reilly, or Advance Auto, etc.). Follow the manufacturerÂ’s directions and refer to FSM to check the fuel pressure. Remember to remove the vacuum line (small rubber vac line going to the Fuel Pressure Solenoid Â– the one your Boost Gauge should be TÂ’d to) from the fuel pressure regulator and pinch it closed with your fingers (or an adequately sized bolt). The specs youÂ’re looking for are as follows:
1g N/T: 47-50 psi
1g Turbo (A/T): 41-46 psi
1g Turbo (M/T): 36-38 psi
2g N/T 4G63: 47-50 psi
2g Turbo: 42-45 psi
Next, check to make sure your injectors are firing. Measure the resistance at the injector clips with your DVOM. Resistance should read 2-3 ohms at the injectors, and the clips should be receiving battery voltage while cranking. Take a long, rubber-topped screwdriver and place the metal end on top of each injector, and your ear on the other. Crank the car, and listen for a sharp metallic Â“clickingÂ”. YouÂ’ll hear the clicking each time the injector fires. If your injectorÂ’s arenÂ’t firing, try swapping out your Injector Resistor Pack with a known good unit. These donÂ’t usually go bad, but when they do, theyÂ’ll keep the injectors from firing. The ECU may also be at fault here, or the wiring to the injectors may be damaged.
2. Checking for Spark: Before checking for spark, first remove and inspect your spark plugs. Are they improperly gapped or have they been fouled by age, improper fuel mixture, etf? If so, replace them and try to start the car again.
To check for spark, disconnect one of the spark plug wires and attach a spare spark plug (itÂ’s always good to have a spare handy Â– you can use a cheap-o one from Wal-Mart for testing purposes). Place the plug and plug wire onto the valve cover and have a friend crank the car. Do you see spark arcing onto the valve cover? Sometimes itÂ’s best to do this test at night Â– this makes it easier to see the spark. Repeat this test on all 4 cylinders to verify that youÂ’re getting spark all the way across. If youÂ’re not getting spark on some or all of the cylinders, first check the condition of the spark plug wires Â– does the spark try to arc through the wire while youÂ’re testing? If so, the wires are damaged and must be replaced. Next, check resistance at the coil. Specs differ by year, so refer to your FSM for the specs for your particular vehicle. If everything tests out okay and youÂ’re still not getting spark, pull the ECU and check the board for damage due to capacitor leakage. DSMs are not getting any younger, and are notorious for leaking ECU capacitors. One final culprit could be the CAS. These differ by year as well, so again, refer to FSM for appropriate testing procedure and specifications. First, however, you might want to make sure the CAS is not turned 180* out (i.e. Â“on backwards!Â”).
3. Checking Engine Timing: The procedure for checking and setting engine timing is fairly complex, so I will let you refer to the VFAQ for this one. HereÂ’s the link:
4. Checking Compression: Checking compression is another thing that is best covered in the VFAQ. Here you go: http://www.dsmgrrrl.com/FAQs/compression.htm
III Â– Fuel, Spark, Timing and Compression are good, but the car still wonÂ’t start!
WeÂ’ve narrowed it down this far, and weÂ’re definitely making progress. There are a couple of things we can check now that will usually Â“seal the dealÂ”.
1. Has your car been sitting for any length of time? If youÂ’ve stored your car, or itÂ’s been down for a while, and now wonÂ’t start, you can bet that the gas in the tank has gone bad. Drain the gas tank via the drain plug on the bottom of the tank, and remove the tank (refer to FSM for exact removal instructions. Remember to remove the fuel pump and all related electrical connectors first. Dropping the fuel tank will take about an hour if youÂ’ve never done it before). Clean the fuel tank with high pressure water and let it air dry IN A SAFE LOCATION (away from any possible danger of sparks or extreme temperatures) for at least 24 hours. Fill the tank with a few gallons of high octane gas, as well as a bottle of Fuel System Cleaner (like Seafoam) and/or Octane Booster.
2. Does the car eventually start, or act like itÂ’s trying to start? Is the problem especially bad after the car has sat overnight, or on a cold day? This is likely your ECT (Coolant Temperature Sensor). The ECT is the first sensor the ECU looks at when you start your car. The ECU asks it "How cold is it outside today?" and the Temp Sensor responds. The ECU takes that information and decides how much fuel to send to the injectors. If your ECT is faulty, the ECU will either get an incorrect reading back, or no reading at all, and will stay in open-loop, dumping fuel into your cylinders, making your car excessively hard (or impossible in some cases) to start.
The Coolant Temp Sensor is located on your thermostat housing, towards the bottom, on the left/front. It is a two-prong male connector (one prong on a 2g). Inspect the wires going to the sensor first Â– there is a lot of heat down there, and wires can become brittle and snap off of the connectors due to age and extreme temperatures. The following information demonstrates how to check the operation of the ECT on a 1g. For 2g, refer to FSM.
Testing the Coolant Temperature Sensor on a 1g:
Unplug the black plastic clip and turn the key ON (do not start the car). Connect the negative probe of your DVOM to a good ground on the car, and the positive to one of the plugs in the clip. With key ON you should see approx. 4.5-4.9 volts. You may have to try both of the plugs until you find the one that sees voltage Â– one sees voltage and the other does not.
Assuming this checks out okay (99% of the time it will), we will now move on to resistance. Basically speaking, as the temperature of the coolant INcreases, the resistance value will DEcrease.
With the engine cold and the sensor unplugged, turn your DVOM to resistance (ohms) and connect the probes to each of the two prongs on the sensor. The prongs on the ECT will form a sort of "T" shape: kind of like this: | \
With engine cold, resistance should read somewhere between 2,200 to 2,700 ohms (if it's a little higher, it is due to extremely cold ambient temperatures. Somewhere close to this range is okay though).
The next step in this test would normally involve starting the car and getting it up to operating temperature. However, if the car will not start at all (probably the case if youÂ’re reading this), you can replicate this part of the test in a heated dish of water. See below for instructions and necessary water temperatures. If you can get the car to start, plug the sensor back in and start the car now. Get the engine up to operating temperature, and turn it back off. Unplug the sensor again, and repeat the resistance test. (BE CAREFUL, it is VERY HOT down there now). The resistance should now read approx 280 to 350 ohms.
If the car will not start at all, or if you can't quite reach the sensor, you can unbolt the sensor unit and reproduce the testing procedure with a dish of water. If you do this, have a rag or bolt handy to plug the hole you make by removing the sensor -- lots of coolant will come out. You can drain the coolant first if you want to avoid this.
Put the bottom of the sensor (round, gold metal part) into a dish of room temp water (50-80*) and measure resistance. Then, heat the water to approx. 180-200* (not quite boiling), and repeat, using the same resistance values stated above.
If resistance is not within specs, replace the sensor.
Related resistance specs for 2g Turbo engine:
Cold (68*F): 2.1 - 2.7 kOhms
Hot (176*F): 0.26 - 0.36 kOhms
Testing procedure is similar for 2gs. Refer to FSM for complete testing procedure.
Coolant Temp Sensor on a 1990 GSX Circled in Picture (Pay no attention to the letters. But if youÂ’re interested, Â“AÂ” is the Coolant Temp Fan Switch for the A/C, and Â“CÂ” is the Temp Gauge Sending Unit).
There you have it. Chances are, if youÂ’ve tried everything listed here and your car still wonÂ’t start, itÂ’s time to post your problem in the forums for some detailed advice.
Short answer: Yes.
For more details on this, Magnus has created a great document 1Gina2G (PDF)
If that link does not work, we have archived the document 1Gina2G Archive (PDF)
|Valve Size Int/Exh||Combust. Chamber Vol||.100||.150||.200||.250||.300||.350||.400||.450||.500||.550||.600||Average|
|Eclipse SOHC CNC M2 Race Systems||N/A||35.25mm/ 25.7mm|
|4G63 Gen I||N/A||34mm/ 30.5mm||N/A||-||-||-||229/187||237/188||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|4G63 Gen I '89-94 CNC M2 Race Systems||N/A||35mm/ 30.5mm|
|4G63 Alaniz Cyl Heads||N/A||34mm/ 30.5mm||N/A||77/75||117/117||154/151||187/174||206/189||216/197||220/199||221/200||223/202||-||-||-|
|4G63 Ported Level 4 Polk||N/A||35mm/-||N/A||106/-||161/-||188/-||241/-||270/-||298/-||309/-||320/-||334/-||346/-||357/-||-|
|4G63 AMS SF600||N/A||34mm/ 30.5mm||N/A||81/67||119/105||153/138||183/173||201/192||209/203||211/208||205/209||206/211||-||-||-|
|4G63 Ported AMS SF600||N/A||34mm/ 30.5mm||N/A||107/88||151/134||189/193||222/229||244/245||258/249||269/255||274/261||277/265||-||-||-|
|4G63 1G Ported Fox Lake SF600||N/A||-||N/A||-||-||-||-||-||-||280/-||289/-||291/-||-||-||-|
|4G63 2G Ported Fox Lake SF600||N/A||-||N/A||-||-||-||-||-||-||272-||281/-||287/-||-||-||-|
|1G Mild Port||N/A||-||N/A||83/-||-||157/-||-||222/-||235/-||244/-||-||-||-||-||-|
|Valve Size Int/Exh||Combust. Chamber Vol||.100||.150||.200||.250||.300||.350||.400||.450||.500||.550||.600||Average|
|1G Ported Mike +1mm valves||N/A||35mm/31.5mm||N/A||87/78||-||169/166||-||230/208||-||257/227||-||270/239||-||-||-|
|EVO 4G63 CHW Alum||N/A||34mm/30.5mm|
|EVO 4G63 Ported CHW Alum||N/A||35mm/31.5mm|
|EVO Ported Fox Lake SF600||N/A||-||N/A||-||-||-||-||-||-||265-||276/-||280/-||-||-||-|
|EVO 1 Sabre Heads JS||N/A||34mm/30.5mm||N/A||80/72||122/120||161/163||197/189||225/198||238/202||246/205||251/205||252/205||-||-||-|
|EVO 1 Ported Sabre Heads SF110||N/A||34mm/31.5mm||N/A||78/79||118/132||159/172||197/194||225/207||240/219||251/224||257/227||261/231||-||-||-|
|EVO 4G63 Cosworth||N/A||34mm/ 30.5mm||N/A||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||282/257||-||-||-|
|EVO 4G63 Ported Cosworth||N/A||-||N/A||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||335/282||-||-||-|
|EVO 8 4G63 David B||N/A||34mm/30.5mm||N/A||-||177/135||-||221/197||-||224/218||-||228/218||-||-||-||-|
|Valve Size Int/Exh||Combust. Chamber Vol||.100||.150||.200||.250||.300||.350||.400||.450||.500||.550||.600||Average|
|EVO 9 Kelford Cams||N/A||34mm/ 30.5mm||N/A||81/70||122/110||158/142||188/162||211/175||225/186||236/192||239/196||-||-||-||-|
|EVO 9 Mild Port Kelford Cams +1mm valves||N/A||35mm/ 31.5mm||N/A||89/81||131/121||169/160||200/179||227/193||245/204||257/213||266/221||-||-||-||-|
|EVO 9 CNC Heads UK||N/A||1.377/1.24|
|EVO 9 Ported CNC Heads UK||N/A||1.377/1.24|
|EVO IX Ported AMS +1mm valves SF600||N/A||35mm/ 31.5mm||N/A||107/88||151/134||189/193||222/229||244/245||258/249||269/255||274/261||277/265||-||-||-|
|EVO X AMS SF600||N/A||34mm/ 30.5mm||N/A||101/74||147/128||186/157||216/161||235/183||252/186||266/189||275/191||280/193||-||-||-|
|EVO X Ported AMS||N/A||-||N/A||97/86||139/141||183/199||225/226||251/233||274/235||293/238||305/239||315/240||-||-||-|
|EVO X 4B11 David B||N/A||34mm/ 30.5mm||N/A||-||141/142||-||202/197||-||242/212||-||256/219||-||-||-||-|
|EVO X 4B11||N/A||34mm/ 30.5mm||N/A||85/71||131/121||173/154||208/170||231/177||250/181||265/183||273/185||277/187||-||-||-|
|EVO X 4B11 Mild Ported Kelford Cams||N/A||34mm/ 30.5mm||N/A||86/80||131/127||173/157||209/178||235/189||256/194||272/197||283/198||292/200||-||-||-|
|G54B Ported Marnal||N/A||1.80/1.50||N/A||58/51||-||114/91||-||170/118||-||211/141||-||223/155||-||229/160||-|
|NT PPE LLC||N/A||-||N/A||84/73||-||169/156||-||220/185||-||233/191||-||-||-||-||-|
|Valve Size Int/Exh||Combust. Chamber Vol||.100||.150||.200||.250||.300||.350||.400||.450||.500||.550||.600||Average|
|NT Port PPE LLC||N/A||-||N/A||91/96||-||175/183||-||242/211||-||260/219||-||-||-||-||-|
If you are reading this, chances are you are either having a problem with your cooling system, or would like to make it more efficient. Below is a list, both 1G and 2G specific, that can help when making your decision and troubleshooting a failed cooling system. This FAQ focuses on stock-style cooling systems.
Your cooling system consists of 5 major components. They are your Radiator, Thermostat, Radiator Cap, Water Pump and Cooling Fans. We will discuss these in detail throughout this FAQ.
To sum it up, there are only 3 reasons why your cooling system will fail.
1: Lack of flow
Typically this is caused by a failed water pump, a stuck thermostat, a blocked or clogged radiator. A failed water pump will have the tell tale sign of coolant seeping out of the weep hole. You will typically notice a large pool ofcoolant below your timing belt cover area. Barring any broken hoses from your Oil Cooler, this is usually a sign of a failed water pump.
A stuck thermostat will reveal itself when your car is at operating temperature, your coolant is full, however your upper radiator hose is cold. Eventually the pressure inside the system will exceed the radiator cap's spring and you will start pushing coolant into your overflow. Change your thermostat.
A clogged radiator will reveal itself when all others fail. Usually, you can visually see debris in between the fins of your radiator. If there is enough of it, it will impede airflow past your radiator, and the efficiency of your radiator will not be sufficient enough to cool your engine. Flushing your radiator is as simple as removing it, pressure washing or hitting it with compressed air to blow the fins clean, then flushing the internals with water. Introducing aftermarket equipment in front of the radiator such as an FMIC or oil cooler without proper ducting will also impede airflow.
2: Lack of Coolant/Incorrect mixture
Typically this is due to a leak of some form. Find it and repair it. Your cooling system travels through a number of areas including your water pipe, turbo (if applicable), Oil cooler, water pump, throttle body, heater core and overflow container.
The ideal mixture is 50/50. That's 50% Coolant (Ethyl Glycol) and 50% distilled water. This mixture works for most driving habits under most conditions, however, most of us do not fall under this "Average" driving habit, and increase of water into your cooling system will allow it to perform better. Water does a fantastic job of removing heat, so the more of it you have, the better. Do not run straight water, your cooling system requires coolant to lubricate and increase the boil temperature of water. A great additive for your cooling system is a product called "Water Wetter", and is found at your local Canadian Tire, Autozone, Part Source, Napa etc.
As your cooling system heats up, the water in your system expands and your radiator cap keeps this expansion pressure in your system, raising the boil point of the water. As you drive your car, coolant will be pushed out into your overflow as the system creates pressure. Albeit a small amount, this amount returns to your cooling system once the car shuts off. As the engine cools, it creates a vacuum and barring all the funky Fluid and Thermo Dynamics, replenishes the cooling system by sucking it in back through the overflow via syphon.
There are mainly 2 reason why your coolant will not be sucked back into the system:
1. Radiator Cap: A poorly functioning radiator cap will allow for too much coolant to be pushed out and/or not enough seal to allow for the syphoning of coolant back into the system.
2. Overflow bottle/hoses: The overflow bottle should be below or at level with your theromostat housing, and a line inside the overflow bottle that goes down past the normal cold level for your coolant. Cracks or tears in the hose between the overflow bottle and thermostat housing will also impede a suction of coolant, and will pull in air.
Pressure can also come from the combustion chamber. A failed headgasket will either allow for coolant to enter the combustion chamber and be burned, or push air into the cooling system. Typically, the signs of a failed headgasket would be one or more of the following:
1. Foaming of coolant
2. Burning of coolant (White smoke)
3. Oil in Coolant/Coolant in Oil
4. Overheating condition within 10 or so minutes of driving
5. Overflow bottle filling up/overflowing at operating temperature
6. Coolant being pushed out of the rad cap under boost
7. Lack of return from overflow bottle to cooling system
8. Increase of pressure in cooling system/pushing coolant to overflow. (This can also be attributed to a failed radiator cap)
Lets discuss the 5 components, what they do, how they do it and how to maintain/increase their efficiency.
Arguably the most important part of the system, the radiator is a heat transfer device and allows for flowing air through the fins to transfer heat from the engine to the air and dissipate. There are three things you need to remember about your radiator.
2. Coolant flow
In order for coolant to pass through your radiator, it must not be clogged. Ensuring your radiator is free from contaminants will ultimately keep it working as efficiently as possible. Your radiator hoses are also a must-maintain part of this important system. Cracked, worn, or soft radiator hoses are just a few heat cycles away from failing. I have personally seen a car cooling after a run down the track and the upper rad hose splitting open before my eyes!
Airflow is also THE key to a properly working radiator. We add FMIC's, Oil Coolers, Transmission Coolers, Power Steering coolers all in front of the engine cooler and then wonder why our coolant temperatures start to skyrocket. If you look at a stock DSM, you'll notice there are many plastic shrouds all around the radiator. These are there to direct air directly to the radiator, and not let it bleed off from around the car. When adding upgraded components to your car, it is crucial that you imitate these factory shrouds by building your own ductwork to direct air to the radiator. Without airflow, the radiator cannot do it's job. A great test for this is to turn on your fans with the hood closed and see if it will suck a piece of paper to your FMIC. If it can, chances are your airflow is pretty good.
Thermostat and Radiator Cap
These two critical parts of the cooling system can be the difference between overheating and overcooling. The thermostat keeps the pressure in the system, upping the boil point and keeping all that nice expensive coolant in the car.
There are three seals in the rad cap. One on the outside that seals the water neck housing. Second seal is on the inside that is spring loaded and seals inside the water neck housing. This one maintains the pressure in the cooling system. Once pressure builds past 11 lbs with a stock rad cap from the coolant heating and expanding, its pushes past this seal into the over flow until pressure falls back below the rad cap specs.
How does it come back in when it cools ? There is a third seal or valve which works in the opposite direction. Its the round metal thing in the middle of the second seal. When coolant contracts, this valve opens and allows coolant from the overflow to flow back into the coolant system. Under pressure and expansion, this metal valve is sealed shut against the second seal. The cooling system constantly goes through this cycle of expansion and contraction which your driving, the rad cap needs to be functioning properly on order for it to do so.
A 16lb rad cap will cause all your lines to be a little more pressurized than a stock rad cap, but will increase boiling point. You'll notice your overflow coolant level fluctuate more with a 11 lb rad cap than a 16 lb rad cap. I like to keep my cooling system a little more "loose" with the stock rad cap.
-- Credits to Reza Mirza
The thermostat is what regulates your temperature, and oddly enough, the pressure in the system as well. Pressure is defined as a resistance to flow, and the thermostat creates just that. Without a thermostat, you will eventually overheat due to lack of pressure, so keep it in there. Your thermostat can fail both open and closed, and it's pretty easy to figure out what will happen in either circumstance. Installing too low of a temperature thermostat will cause an overcooling condition, which can be just as harmful as overheating. Your ECU depends on the engine getting to a certain temperature for normal operation, and if the car does not get to that temperature, the ECU will always think it's simply still warming up, keeping it in openloop mode. In openloop, the ECU depends on it's internal tables to tell how much fuel to introduce, and typically, this is a rich mixture. Also, the ECU depends on thecoolant temperature to begin learning fuel trims. This temperature is around 180 degrees for a 2G, and 190 for a 1G. Also, using a colder "racing" thermostat to try and combat an overheating problem is rarely the solution. A car that overheats will overheat no matter at what temperature the thermostat opens, it will just take longer for it to happen.
A variable displacement pump, the water pump's job is simple; Keep the coolant moving through the system. The water pump rides on a sealed bearing and is spun by the crankshaft via the alternator/water pump belt. The "weep hole" is a small hole at the top of the water pump and in a failed bearing/pump circumstance, coolant will drip out of this hole. Typically it is best to replace the water pump every time you do a timing belt job, as you need to remove the timing belt in order to do it. Ensuring a good seal between the pump and block as well as between the water pipe and pump will prevent you from having to do the job more than once. Take your time!!
Properly installed, shrouded and working cooling fans are critical to not overheating in stop and go traffic. A 1G has a thermoswitch at the bottom passenger side of the radiator that controls the fans on/off, whereas the 2G has an ECU controlled setup. Different combinations of setups can both do the job equally (2 pullers, 2 pushers or one of each). The OEM fans work great, and if you can keep them, do so, however most of our upgrades prohibit such an idea, so they came out with slim fans. In this scenario, bigger IS better. If you can cram a 14" slim fan in there, do it. The more airflow you can provide to your radiator, the better.
Last but not least are all the coolant lines and hoses. As your car ages, so do the parts, and with the expansion/contraction of your coolant lines, the eventually will begin to deteriorate. Check your lines every so often to ensure there are no soft spots, cracks or tears as these are signs of impending failure. The smallest soft spot will eventually lead to a leak or split in the line.
Lets take a look at the coolant mixture. What is the best mixture? Some will say 80/20 water/coolant, some say 70/30, some will say 50/50, but it's all in what works for you and your area/driving style. If you live in a hot area, a 75/25 mix might work, but colder areas require more coolant than water, so a 50/50 is best. Ensuring your coolant mixture is correct, and that the system is full at all times will ensure your car cools itself properly. Air is the enemy to your cooling system, and it ALWAYS comes from somewhere. Be it a cracked line, failed rad cap or improperly burped system, air will cause all sorts of heating/cooling conundrums that can drive a person mad. If everything above is in good working order, you will never get air in the system, period.
So, there you have it, a basic writeup about a typical DSM Cooling System configuration, how it works and where to start when that temperature gauge starts creeping up on you in 30*C weather in stop&go traffic. I hope this thread has been helpful for you.
After hearing this problem discussed a hundred times on the list, and recieving a lot of mail, I figured I'd whip up a quick FAQ on what you should look for when you encounter this common problem. 99 times out of 100, it's one of these fixes. Hopefully you're not among the 1% that has to go to the dealer to have them fit one of those UGLY black "kludge boxes" onto your ECU.
Here are a few things to try:
1) Block off your EGR valve. Sometimes these fail, and when they do, this is what happens. It happened on my car, then I put in a block-off plate and everything was great. They also cool your intake noticably, and you'll never have to clean your TB ever again! To get one of these great little things, send some email to my mentor, Frank Szymkowski.
2) Change your vaccum hoses, especially the one going to the fuel-pressure regulator. Sometimes this one leaks and creates problems for the FPR.
3) Change your plug wires. I'd use some MagnaCore wires. They're less $$$ than the stock ones, and they're 8.5mm opposed to the stock 6mm. The stock wires are no good, especially when raising the boost.
4) Clean your throttle body REALLY well. Make it spotless, including both sides of the throttle plate.
5) Clean out your intercooler. Do this by taking it out, dump about a gallon of gasoline into it, then shake it around and dump out. Repeat process until gas coming out is clean.
Do all of these, and your car will run better than new!!
Some people have issues with a CEL coming from Rear O2. (Failed Cat?)
Here is an O2 Simulator you can build. This gets very hot so be carefull. Mount it outside the car.
It has also been menrtioned that you should use 4 resistors instead of 3 for better heat dissipation.
E316G acronym stands for "Evo 3 16g" Turbo
This 16g turbo is good for a well tuned car to hit 310-350WHP @ 20PSI
You can vent your BOV to make the cool woosh sound but be warned, there may be problems.
If you are running a standalone / ecmlink ecu in Speed Density mode everything will be fine. If not (you are running a chip or SAFC), you may experience very rich conditions along with stalling or stumbling.
This depends on what your end goals are. You can't go wrong with the following for up to 35 PSI:
Head gasket: Felpro Permatorque MLS
Head studs:Standard ARP or L19
Setup #2: (Shep and John Wigger use and recommend)
Head Gasket:OEM MLS
Head Studs: Standard ARP or L19
Head O Rings: Steel
Important: The difference between the Felpro 1153-1 and OEM MLS is the Felpro has a built in o-ring and the OEM does not.
A note on L19 and A1 studs
As far as the L19, A1 head studs vs. standard ARP... I would suggest that the L19's and A1's can offer higher clamping loads, but that requires you to apply more torque to the studs to acheive this. Our cylinder heads can not really take the increase load. To be honest, at those loads, you begin to crush the seats around the studs. The structure simply cant take all that the L19 and A1's have to offer. I would really suggest saving the money and going with standard ARPs. A lot of the 8 and 9 second cars run the standard ARPs without issue.
AWDDSM95 @ DSMTuners
Headgasket for 35-40psi??
You must ensure that your block and head mating surface are pristine if you want to run really high boost.
Anything sub-par and it does not matter what headgasket / studs you use.
Aim for as smooth a finish as you can get. (around 10 micro-inch)
It must be under 30 micro-inch finish.
Quick Turbos are 18g or under. (11 - 14 sec)
Fast Turbos are 20g or larger. (11 seconds or less with Traps higher than 125)
For city in town fun, you will have the most fun with an E316G. (Has run high 11's with 122 trap)
Estimate 10 crankHP per 1lb / min of flow.
14b = 30 lb/min
16g = 34lb/min
Big 16g = 36lb/min
18g = 40lb/min
EVO III Big 16g = 42lb/min
20g = 44lb/min
Big28 = 37lb/min
FP2544 = 44lb/min (56trim/ dual BB)
Sleeper 16g = 44lb/min
Green = 49lb/min (50 trim)
FP49 = 49lb/min (50 trim, T31 turbine)
Red = 60lb/min (60-1 trim, dyno 520whp)
FP3052 = 52lb/min (dyno 504whp)
FP3065 = 65lb/min (dyno 585whp)
FP58 = 65lb/min (GT40 56 trim comp. wheel, .49A/R PTE, T350 turbine)
T28 = 36lb/min (TB03 compressor)
RS43 = 43lb/min (46 trim T04E)
SS44 = 44lb/min (It is a 44lb/min but not a 48trim. It is not a GT30 at all. It's special, topsecret, Kevin)
RS49 = 49lb/min (50 trim T04E)
RS60 = 60lb/min (60-1 trim) (claimed 534whp)
RS65 = 65lb/min (56 trim GT40)
DSM Performance/Extreme Turbo:
ETA12 = 36lb/min (S-trim, ETA comp housing)
ETA32 = 48lb/min (50 trim, ETA comp housing)
ETE32 = 48lb/min (50 trim, T04E comp housing)
ETE42 = 50lb/min (60 trim, TO4E)
ETE52 = 55lb/min (60-1 trim, TO4E)
ETE53 = 55lb/min (60-1 trim, T04E)
ETE73 = 72lb/min (T66 comp wheel, T04E)
BR-BIG28 = (claimed 350hp)
BR20G = (TD05/6 hybrid)
BR475 = (No info as of yet)
BR57 = (Garrett T3/T4)
BR500 = (claimed 504whp)
BR580 = (claimed 575whp)
BR675 = (No info as of yet)
SBR-M50 = 48lb/min (50 trim)
SBR-M60 = 60lb/min (60-1 trim)
SBR-GT10 = 44lb/min (48 trim, dual BB)
SBR-GT11 = (No info as of yet)
SBR-GT12 = 55lb/min (56 trim, dual BB)
SBR-GT13 = 60lb/min (60 trim, dual BB)
SBR-GT14 = 65lb/min (56 trim, dual BB)
SBR-GT35R = (No info as of yet)
SBR-GT30R = (No info as of yet)
SBR-G50 = 48lb/min (50 trim, T04E)
SBR-G57 = 55lb/min (56 trim, T04E)
SBR-60-1 = 60lb/min (60-1 trim, T04E)
Frank 1 = 46 trim, 20*clipped TD05H turbine, TD05H 7cm2 housing
Frank 2 = 46 trim, unclipped TD06 turbine, TD05H 7cm2 housing
Frank 50 = 50 trim, unclipped TD06 turbine, TD05H 7cm2 housing
Frank 3 = 54 trim, unclipped TD06 turbine, TD05H 7cm2 housing
Frank 57 = 57 trim, unclipped TD06 turbine, TD05H 7cm2 housing
Frank 4 = 60 trim, 10*clipped TD06 turbine, TD05H 7cm2 housing
Frank 5 = 60 trim, unclipped TD06H turbine, TD05H 7cm2 housing
Frank 6 = 60 trim, unclipped TD06H turbine, TD05H 8cm2 housing
Frank 7 = 60 trim, 10*clipped TD06H turbine, TD05H 8cm2 housing
The following is from theGarrett Catalog:
"R" = Ball bearing; "S" = Special
GT12 = 10lb/min (50trim, .43a/r turbine)
GT15 = 15lb/min (60trim, .35a/r turbine)
GT20 = 20lb/min (55trim, .46a/r turbine)
GT22 = 18=22lb/min (52trim, .56a/r or 60trim, .67a/r turbine)
GT25R = 22lb/min (60trim, .64a/r turbine)
GT28R =24lb/min (60trim, .64a/r turbine)
GT28RS =28lb/min (62trim, .86a/r or .64a/r turbine)
GT30R =55lb/min (56trim, 1.06a/r or .82a/r turbine)
GT32 =35lb/min (52trim, .78a/r or .69a/r turbine)
GT35 = 35lb/min (52trim, 1.18a/r turbine)
GT35R =45lb/min (56trim, 1.06a/r or .82a/r turbine)
GT37 = 36lb/min (52trim, 1.12a/r turbine)
GT40 = 65lb/min (50 or 54trim, .94a/r or 1.34a/r turbine)
GT42 = 75lb/min
GT42-1 = 85lb/min
GT42-2 = 96lb/min
GT60 = 125lb/min (56trim, 1.47a/r turbine)
The following is fromTurboneticsCatalog:
On TO4E Compressor housings:
50-trim = 47lbs/min
54-trim = 45lbs/min
57-trim = 49lbs/min
60-trim = 50lbs/min
T-100 = 180lbs/min
TO4B compressor housing:
60-1 = 65lbs/min
62-1 = 70lbs/min
HX35 Compressors: (Est: 60lb/min)
50mm / 78mm 7-blade
52mm / 78mm 7-blade
54mm / 78mm 7-blade
54mm / 83mm 8-blade
56mm / 83mm 8-blade
Turbine: 70mm / 60mm
HX40:Compressors: (Est 70lb/min)
56mm / 86mm 6-blade (cast & billet)
60mm / 86mm 6-blade (cast & billet)
60mm / 86mm 7-blade (cast & billet)
58mm / 83mm 8-blade (cast & billet)
60mm / 83mm 8-blade
Turbine: 76mm / 64mm
Missing Holset Flow Information.
Due to various housings, this information may be hard to nail down.
Mitsu = Garrett
6cm2 = .41 a/r
7cm2 = .49 a/r
8cm2 = .57 a/r
9cm2 = .65 a/r
10cm2 = .73 a/r
11cm2 = .81 a/r
12cm2 = .89 a/r
There are many things in and around the timing belts that should be checked when doing a timing belt job, especially if replacements are done infrequently. (Owners who perform timing belt changes on a more frequent basis (perhaps as part of engine rebuilds or other work associated with motorsports) need not necessarily check everything each time, and will of necessity have the experience to judge what to replace and what not to.)
The following is a list of parts that should be checked, repaired and/or replaced during a timing belt replacement. The list is based off of experience with 1G cars. 2G owners can still use this as a guide, but 2Gs may have certain other specific problems not mentioned here.
For more information on why belts are so important on DSMs, read the section Why is it so important to change the timing belt on a [DSM]? in this FAQ.
|Part||Reason for check|
|All 5 belts||Broken accessory belts can hit the timing belt, causing it to jump or break.|
|Timing belt tensioner||Tensioner can wear out or separate, leading to timing belt failure. [Search for 'tensioner']|
|Balance shaft belt tensioner||Same reason as timing belt tensioner.|
|Water pump||Replacing the pump requires removing the timing belts. Do it while the belts are off anyway if there is any chance the water pump might fail, or if it is near the date for scheduled replacement. Read this post to see what can happen if you don't replace it.|
|Oil pump sprocket and nut||The oil pump sprocket nut can come loose, and damage the sprocket. It can also spray oil over the belts, causing them to fail prematurely. Also, loose nuts can chew through the timing belt cover and may eventually hit the timing belt, causing it to break or jump.|
|Seals for the following: oil pump, balance shaft, crankshaft, and the o-ring under the balance shaft plug.||They get old and brittle, and no longer seal well.|
|Timing belt tensioner bearing, timing belt idler pulley bearing, and balance shaft tensioner bearing||The bearings get dried out. They can be repacked, but are inexpensive to replace. You can also replace the pulleys, but there have been some redesigns and new timing belt pulley may not fit quite right.|
|Crankshaft accessory pulley/harmonic balancer||The rubber portion of the pulley can become old and brittle, and can eventually separate, causing the pulley to fall apart.|
Note that after a timing belt job has been performed by an outside source, it is important to check and/or adjust the base engine timing. Not an alignment issue, this involves taking a timing light and double-checking that the base timing has not gotten screwed up.
This is not as straightforward as it may seem, since the ECU generally controls the timing and can 'fool' the mechanic into believing the base timing is ok. It is necessary to ground the timing adjustment connector in the engine bay to disable the ECU control and allow the engine to run at its true base timing. Otherwise, the ECU will do it's best to dynamically adjust the timing to the 'correct' value, even though the base timing is messed up.
Failure to do this check may result in the ECU lacking sufficient range to advance the timing as far as it should go, leading to a loss of power. Some Digesters have (belatedly) checked their base timing only to find that their timing was set all the way back, presumeably when a timing belt recall was done on their car. Once they reset the timing to the correct value, the car 'wakes up' and runs stronger than ever.
Read this post by GAS_MAN on DSMTuners first.
If you want to build your own boost leak tester that won't scare the crap out of you if it blows apart,
check out this video Ultimate Boost Leak Tester
Then follow Oldman on DSMTuners list.
1. Disable your mbc.
2. Turn your motor to 30* ATDC to avoid valve overlap. (you will lose pressure if any valves are open)
3. Start your test at the TB elbow and focus on area behind the TB first.
4. Spray soapy water at TB gasket, BISS, TB shaft on both sides, IM gasket, injector insulators, brake booster, afpr and all vacuum lines/connections.
5. Open your oil cap and listen for leaks. (PCV, valve seals/guide, rings)
5. Listen to your tailpipe for leaks. (EGR, valve overlap, jumped timing, bent/unseated valves)
6. Once all leaks are fixed, move the tester back to the turbo inlet.
7. Spray down the compressor cover (known leak), BOV return/flange (DO NOT TAP YOUR BOV LINE FOR YOUR MBC!!!), IC end tank/fins and all connections. Re- test.
8. Note that you will leak air into the crankcase through the turbo seal but do not panic, this is normal during a static pressure test as long as there are no shaft play.
The desired test result from the begining of the LICP (bypassing turbo) is around 20psi (on boost gauge) with the compressor set at 30psi, while taking no less than 30 seconds to bleed down to 0.
As a reference, my last test on my 500 mile new engine, I was able to pressurize the system to 25psi, bled down to about 16psi (my 1G bov) in about 30seconds, then took about 3 mins to 6psi and just kinda lingered there for a while. It's not easy to do but the point is it's possible. My next goal is 30psi After motor break in and Dodge modding my BOV. A boost leak test is one of most pita but important regular maintenace task, the key is patience and endurance
HYUNDAI ELANTRA (1992 - 1994)
HYUNDAI ELANTRA GL (1992 - 1994)
HYUNDAI ELANTRA GLS (1992 - 1994)
HYUNDAI ELANTRA (1994 - 1995)
HYUNDAI ELANTRA GL (1994 - 1995)
HYUNDAI ELANTRA GLS (1994 - 1995)
HYUNDAI SONATA (1994 - 1995)
HYUNDAI SONATA GL (1994 - 1995)
HYUNDAI SONATA GLS 1994
DODGE 2000 GTX 1990
MITSUBISHI GALANT 1990
MITSUBISHI GALANT GS 1990
MITSUBISHI GALANT GSX 1990
MITSUBISHI GALANT LS 1990
EAGLE TALON 1990
EAGLE TALON TSI 1990
MITSUBISHI ECLIPSE GS 1990
MITSUBISHI ECLIPSE GSX 1990
MITSUBISHI GALANT 1989
MITSUBISHI GALANT GS 1989
MITSUBISHI GALANT LS 1989
PLYMOUTH LASER RS 1990
Great thread on CAS here: http://www.dsmtuners.com/threads/how-to-test-1g-cas.394020/
Once installed, prevent the engine from firing and crank it over until the oil pressure gauges moves (or oil light goes out). Once you have built up oil pressure, undo your engine firing prevention and start it up.
Get the car up to temp (idle) and look for leaks.
Go out for a spin and slowly spool the turbo and watch your boost gauge and for any visible signs of issues (smoke out the tail pipe, not able to build boost, etc)
Another great video by Jafromobile takes an hour to explain Rebuild DSM Turbo Throttle Bodies from 90-99.
Here is a list of items you should mod on your DSM.
FIrst and foremost. Make sure that your DSM is in top shape by ensuring all maintenance has been done and dealing with any other issues. If your tranny/driveline makes noise, adding 200 extra horsepower will probably break it.
Now that your DSM is ready to accept mods, here they are in order of importance.
Fuel Pump (Rewire+Upgrade)
Air Filter (High Flow) + Pipe
ECM Link (ECU Flashing) (go light version if you want to save some money right now)
Turbo + Spark Plugs (May require hotter plug to avoid blow out) Choose a turbo for your end goal.
- 16G (250HP), 20G (300HP), 50TRIM (400-500HP), 60TRIM (500-600HP), etc etc.
3" Exhaust (turbo back)
Fuel Pressure Regulator
By now.. you should be breaking stuff. Upgrade each piece that breaks with something meant to take the punishment. Don't replace a stock transmission on a 500HP talon with another stock transmission. Look at getting hardened transmission.
Have fun and enjoy your forever empty wallet! This is only a suggestion. Take a look at forums and see what other people have done
This is most likely due to unmetered air entering the cylinders. There a few things for you to check
Using ECM Link: Yes. There is a write up on how to hook up the BCS to the ECU allowing ECM Link to control the boost values. You can set boost by gear, rpm, etc.
Guide on everything related to ECU Boost Control using ECMLink: https://www.ecmtuning.com/wiki/boostcontrol
Here is now to install the BCS: https://www.ecmtuning.com/wiki/bcsinstall
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