Technically, a DSM is a car built by Diamond Star Motors, a joint venture between Mitsubishi and Chrysler. More details about DSM are here.
For the purposes of the Talon Digest, the definition of a DSM has been extended somewhat;
[Note: From time to time, debates on the definition of a 'DSM' emerge on the Digest. These debates usually center around a record-breaking car which, because it does or does not have a certain component or feature, 'should' or 'should not' be considered a 'DSM' in the 'true' sense of the word.
Such judgements are entirely subjective and cannot be resolved, except by arbitrary rules; resist the temptation to reopen any such debate as moderators and membership are tired of hearing about it. All race results that can reasonably be deemedrelated to DSMs are reported - whoever is king in your own mind is best kept to yourself.]
In further news, the now-merged DaimlerChrysler corporation purchased a 34% stake in the now-ailing Mitsubishi Motors corporation in April, 2000. This is not to be taken as a re-emergence of DSM, however - the DSM marque is now consigned to the pages of history.
A FAQ is a file of Frequently Asked Questions, which is exactly what it sounds like - common questions on a subject, and their answers. This file you are reading now is a FAQ. Most FAQs provide a great deal of useful information.; novices are strongly encouraged to read FAQs to familiarize themselves with the basics of their chosen field of interest.
FAQs exist for several reasons:
- To provide a quick and efficient resource for newcomers to the subject.
- To keep the subject matter of mailing lists and newsgroups fresh and interesting.
- To prevent repetition of 'simple' questions from irritating and/or boring more experienced readers.
FAQs exist for thousands of subjects on the net, not just on DSMs. Most newsgroups, mailing lists and discussion boards have a FAQ. A collection of FAQs on many subjects may be found at the Internet FAQ Consortium, and here. A DSM-specific FAQ Locator is used to be available but is now out of service.
Maybe we could point faqs.dsm.org to this website?
A VFAQ is a recent term, which stands for Visual Frequently Asked Questions. A VFAQ is simply a FAQ with pictures, sound and/or video clips that provide more detail on the subject matter. Tom Stangl is credited with coining the term VFAQ.
Currently, VFAQs are available at www.vfaq.com, also hosted by Tom. VFAQs deal almost exclusively with the repair, maintenance and performance upgrades of the DSM cars. These comprehensive guides provide step-by-step instructions on how to install many common DSM performance upgrades.
The Brad Bauer's VFAQ site is not longer operational but can be seen on the internet archive site: https://web.archive.org/web/20010721150657/http://www.myzero.com/
TSB means 'Technical Service Bulletin', a document issued by car makers to dealers that describes known problems and their solutions. See the Glossary for more information. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration makes their TSB database available on the net, as well as recall information.
Chrysler used to produce a technical manual for the DSMs, that dealt less with nuts and bolts and more with the theory of operation of virtually every major component on the auto. Unlike the shop manuals, it tells you not what, but why. This manual used to sell for a mere $2.00, and is now referred to as the $2 Tech Manual.
Unfortunately for the DSM community, the $2 manual was only offered for the 1990 model year and was subsequently dropped from production. All is currently lost, though, as Vineet Singh's DSM Backup Manual CD-ROM is offline. It included the $2TM and tons of other great info.
The best places for documents at the moment is: http://lilevo.com/mirage/
I have never seen the Vineet CD-Rom, all this content may be what was on it.
Bracket racing is a form of drag racing that allows for a handicap between predicted elapsed time of the two cars over a standard distance, typically within the three standard distances (1/8 mile, 1,000 foot, or 1/4 mile) of drag racing.
You can also check out Michael Beard's Guide to Bracket Racing.
'Autox' is an abbreviation for 'autocross'. It is a form of road racing done on a closed course, designed to test the overall skills of the driver, and the overall performance of the vehicle driven. There are autox courses and events all over the continent, including many events in parking lots!
There also exists rallycross, which is like an autocross but on dirt instead of pavement, making it more like a rally (cross-country racing).
Many autocross events in the United States are hosted/directed by the Sports Car Club of America (SCCA), and are run under SCCA rules that put cars with different modifications into different competitive classes. A copy of the SCCA rules is available here; you can also order them from the SCCA. The SCCA also runs rally and other motorsport events.
The Shootout is an annual racing event hosted by Dave Buschur, one of the premiere DSM mechanics in the world. It is considered THE event for the DSM racing community.
Stay up to date by following the events on the following pages
Facebook Event: https://www.facebook.com/events/1581104848837429/
Check https://www.facebook.com/BRShootout for more information about past years.
Support, attendance and participation in the Shootout grows every year. 1998 saw a record 110 vehicles participate in a variety of drag racing and autocross racing events. Also in attendance were several vendors and significant media coverage. There are some pictures available from 1995, and 1998.
While there are more and more Evo's and GT-R's showing up , the last reported numbers from 2013 Shootout is 5000 attendees.
Owing to the popularity of the Shootout, the term is occasionally used by other groups running racing events, as in "The Olde West DSM Shootout". Except for the attendance of DSM enthusiasts, these various events have no relation to the Annual Shootout.
MBC (Mechanical Boost Control) is a VBC. - A fancy name for a simple bleeder valve. A device (air pressure regulator, aquarium valve, ice-maker valve, etc.) that bleeds off a bit of boost pressure that is supposed to be going to the wastegate control valve, thus delaying the opening of the wastegate. For more information on Manual Boost controllers on Wikipedia
Hallman MBCs tend to be well liked.
Base idle set screw. This is used to set the basic idle point for your car, around which the ECU will attempt to control the engine speed. Failure to have the BISS set properly can lead to all kinds of weird idle problems.
Excerpt from: http://www.dsmtuners.com/threads/biss-screw-adjustment.425941/
Adjusting the BISS
1G (since some 1G questions popped up):
To adjust the BISS properly, you need to lock the timing, ground the diagnostic port, and then adjust the BISS until your RPMs are around 750-800rpm (or whatever you have it set to via Link, chip, etc.). If you don't ground the diagnostic port, the ECU will see the BISS adjustment as a change in idle airflow and will attempt to use the ISC to compensate for it. Keep screwing the BISS, the ECU keeps adjusting the ISC with no apparent change in idle rpm...until it runs out of adjustment range.
The other alternative for ECMLink users (as Brian suggested) is to leave it ungrounded and adjust the BISS while watching ISCPosition, until it reads between 30 and 37 or so.
1G BISS Adjustment
For a 2G:
The concept is similar, but I'm not sure about how the OBD-II handles locking the ISC out of the loop. According to the VFAQ, it requires a scan tool, but I've never played with a 2G so I'll leave it at that. The ECMLink method should work the same on both though.
2G BISS Adjustment
Those who need one will find it listed as Mitsubishi part #MD614948, available from any Mitsubishi dealer.
Intercoolers can vary dramatically in size, shape and design, depending on the performance and space requirements of the entire supercharger system. Common spatial designs are front mounted intercoolers (FMIC), top mounted intercoolers (TMIC) and hybrid mount intercoolers (HMIC). Each type can be cooled with an air-to-air system, air-to-liquid system, or a combination of both. Typically DSM use Air to Air.
It is important to note that FMICS: The larger the tank, the longer the piping, the more lag.
Meth/Water injection will not cool intake temps as well without an FMIC, but you CAN run without FMIC. Some have had limited success.
Also, an FMIC will add a little intimidation factor to your [DSM].
BOV stands for blow-off valve, sometimes called a pop-off valve or compressor bypass valve. This is a spring-loaded valve mounted in between the turbocharger and throttle body that opens at a preset pressure. It's function is to provide an escape route for pressurized air trapped in the intake system when the turbocharger is spinning and the throttle place suddenly closes. Although many turbocharged cars lack a BOV, its presence makes the car more driveable. Opinion on whether it improves turbocharger longevity is divided.
The original DSM BOVs were designed to open at about 30 psi or so. Unfortunately for 2G owners, Chrylser replaced the metal 1G BOV with a plastic one that begins to leak at about 15 psi. This is a major problem for those 2Gers looking to up their boost, since the BOV will start to leak a lot of useful boost pressure back into the atmosphere. For this reason, 1G BOVs are a popular upgrade on 2G DSMs.
Hardcore 1Gers might also find the stock BOV to leak under higher boost pressures (more than 20 psi). To correct this problem, some owners crush their BOVs slightly, so they will open only at higher pressures.
BOV crushing doesn't seem to help the valve hold more boost. See What is a crushed BOV?
Owners of highly boosted cars have discovered that the stock 1G BOV tends to begin to open too early. This causes a pressure leak in the intake system that limits boost. The valve tends to leak somewhat at lower boost levels, then opens fully when it's supposed to. This low-level leakage is the problem. The 1G BOV will usually hold pressures to about 22 psi, so this problem usually only appears on cars with upgraded turbochargers.
[2G owners have this problem, times two - the stock 2G BOV can just hold stock boost levels, and tends to start leaking at around 15 psi. 2Gers don't crush their BOV because it's plastic and won't crush. Instead, 2Gers often replace their unit with a stock 1G BOV to eliminate the leakage problem. This works until they too reach the limits of the 1G BOV.]
One DIY solution proposed to fix this problem is to crush the BOV. This means exactly what it says - stick the valve into a vise or clamp and squish it so it doesn't open as early. This is really a cheap & dirty method of increasing the spring force holding the BOV shut, and saves the operator from having to install an expensive aftermarket BOV. This techique can, however, restrict the amount of air that can pass through the BOV when it is wide open, making it a less efficient BOV, and therefore not as good as an aftermarket unit.
Although the technique is simple, individuals should use caution in applying it since various BOVs and crushing techniques are different. The essential technique is to crush the BOV so that it begins to open when 18-20 inHg of vacuum is applied to the reference port. Pristine BOVs will begin to open much earlier than this. Crushing should be done a little at a time until the BOV responds properly. Over-crushing a BOV may result in poor performance.
As with most information available about this modification, this debate remains incomplete. Regardless, owners of stock turbochargers need not concern themselves, as the stock 1G BOV works just fine with stock turbos.
The Last Word: Ray Peters supplied this helpful info on this subject:
"My submission concerns the theory of crushing the BOV. My studies of this concluded that crushing it only solves the open at idle problem and has nothing to do with pressure it will hold. In fact the boost pressure HOLDS the BOV closed plus the spring tension. IMO it is impossible for the valve to leak with all that force on it.
Now the other case, idle and closed throttle operation of the valve. The pressure difference between the intake manifold and the upper intercooler pipe determines when the valve is open. So at idle and when there is more than 15 Inches Hg pressure difference across the throttle plate, the valve begins to open. Crushing the valve slightly increases the spring pressure and raises this difference to just over 20 IN Hg. However the down side is it limits flow because the valve cannot travel fully anymore, and increases the pressure spike against the turbo.
I believe this was done as a workaround so one could dump to atmosphere while using a suck through air measurement device (stock airflow meter or equiv). I tested extensively on both a 1G and a 2G and found this information to be true and correct."
Basically, stop being so cheap - buy a real BOV. [Thanks, Ray!]
ABS - Anti-lock Braking System
A computer-controlled system that can "sense", in a braking situation, when one or more wheels have stopped turning, yet the vehicle is still moving. The computer will then quickly release and re-apply the brakes repeatedly, thus giving the driver more control of the vehicle.
AWS - All Wheel Steering
A system that actively turns the rear wheels (usually no where nearly as much as the front wheels) in the same direction as the front wheels to aid in high-speed cornering and to improve the overall "feel" of the car. The Mitsubishi Galant VR-4 and 3000GT VR-4(Stealth R/T) have AWS systems.
Air-fuel converter, an aftermarket tuning computer sold by A'PEXi. It is similar in some ways to the PMS and VPC but is generally considered less elaborate. The Super AFC was the basic toy to get but was removed from Apexi's website in 2006. As of 2015, AFC NEO is the new thing.
The original AFC is now known as the "knob-style" AFC. It had physical adjustment knobs on the front for 5 ranges. The "Super-AFC" uses a digital display and pushbuttons to alter settings in 8 RPM ranges, and has separate settings for high throttle and low throttle. The deprecated "Super-AFC II" is similar but adds more RPM ranges and other features to the devices.
Honestly, for the price, get ECMLINK. Lose the AFC route.
EGR - Exhaust Gas Recirculator
An emission-control system that directs some exhaust gases back into the intake manifold to reduce the formation of nitrous-oxide (NOx) pollutants. EGRs typically operate off manifold vacuum, and therefore only operate in the off-idle state up to WOT.
EVC - Electronic Valve Control
This device is a basic closed-loop process controller. Its operation is very similar to an electronic cruise control device. You input a desired boost level, and it monitors the actual realtime boost pressure. It then adjusts wastegate opening to maintain a stable boost pressure (supposedly) as engine load and RPM changes. Without a closed-loop control that incorporates an integral correction factor, boost pressure will always vary *somewhat* depending upon engine load and speed. The EVC isn't perfectly "tuned" for all possible engine/turbo configurations, and it is prone to under/over correction at times. The wastegate control is achieved by modulating a solenoid that regulates the amount of air that reaches (and thereby opens) the wastegate.
There are many styles of EVC. Importnat to note that ECMLINK V3 can now control boost as well by using the stock boost control selenoid wires and an aftermarket selenoid.
FCD - Fuel-Cut Defencer
In In Diamond Star applications, this comes with the PFC. In most cases, it appears that you can't buy it separately. The operating principle of the device is that of a frequency limiter. It is connected to the output of the Air-Mass sensor pin 2 on turbo TLE's - pin 1 on Galant VR-4's). The output frequency from the FCD tracks the input frequency until it reaches the limit setting... the output frequency then stays the same even if the input frequency (coming from the AMS) continues to increase. By fooling the ECU into believing that Mass Airflow never exceeds a predetermined amount, fuel cutoff is avoided. Unfortunately, fooling the ECU into believing the engine is consuming less air than it really is, results in a leaned-out mixture once limiting has begun. Because the turbo DSM's are set up to run quite rich on the top end, no harm is done expect possibly in extreme circumstances.
(NOTE: Other "hacks" have been discovered that will serve the same basic purpose: Removing the lower honeycomb section, enlarging the lower AMS inlet, and adding resistors/pots to the baro sensor and thermistor circuits are all somewhat effective techniques.)
Important: Do not use any device to eliminate fuel cut. Fuel cut is there for a reason. If you are hitting fuel cut the ECU believes that you are moving more air than the fuel system can safely deliver. If you are having to eliminate fuel cut with some sort of defender either you have an inadequate fuel system, inadequate tuning tools, or a leak somewhere.
DO NOT decrease air counts without adding more fuel per air count. this will cause you to just run lean all the time and cause exactly what fuel cut tries to prevent. so....
DO NOT put in a fuel cut defender.
DO NOT run a 2g maf on a 1g without a way to balance it out.
DO NOT just lean out your afc to unsafe afrs.
DO NOT turn down your gm maft to unsafe afrs.
DO NOT try and put in larger injectors without fuel management.
DO NOT try to up the fuel pressure without fuel management.
PFC - Programmed Fuel Computer (also PF-CON, FCON)
With ECMLINK, this is to be avoided and is here for archival prupose only.
HKS sells this "piggy-back" computer, and its purpose is to fool the stock ECU into delivering more fuel under certain conditions. It's important to note that this "piggy-back" computer (as they call it) does not exactly work *with* the stock ECU the way that HKS ads might lead you to believe. The PFC doesn't share any data or address lines with the ECU, the only connection it has is thru the lines that originally ran directly to several engine sensors. By altering the signals from these engine sensors, the ECU is "fooled" into delivering an different quantity (usually more) of fuel.
There are limitations with this system, because the factory ECU it still is in final control and has the same limitations.
It should NOT be viewed as a substitute for an self-contained engine computer/control system. A true aftermarket engine control computer will provide vastly greater function and flexibility. The major advantage of the PFC-FCON is that it is fool-proof and very easy to install.
PSI (or P.S.I, psi or p.s.i) is an acroynm for pounds per square inch, a measurement of pressure that is often used in automotive circles. The metric equivalent for psi is the Pascal, although most psi measurements equate better to kiloPascals (kPa). Other units for pressure include the bar and the atmosphere (atm). For the mathematically minded, 1 bar = 14.504 psi = 100 kPa = 0.9869 atm.
'Hg' is the chemical symbol for mercury. It is sometimes used as an incorrect version of inches of mercury (inHG) or millimeters of mercury (mmHG), the unit of measurement for vacuum. This unit was derived from the technique of measuring vacuum by pulling mercury up a glass tube. Vacuum, which is simply negative pressure, is also commonly measured in bars, inches of water (inH2O), and Pascals (Pa). In this case, 1 bar = 29.53 inHg = 401.463 inH2O.
JDM is an acronym for Japanese Domestic Market. It refers to parts that are normally only available in Japan.
A JDM engine is, therefore, an engine that is normally sold in the Japanese market only. Such 4G63-based engines are now routinely imported by some shops as direct replacements for American-spec engines. This is done because JDM engines often come with larger 16G turbos and other enhanced parts not available on American factory engines.
Buyer beware, however: not all JDM engines are equipped with these superior parts, and some configurations may require extra work to put into an American car. In many cases, even the importing shop may not know what they have until they get it and inspect it very closely. Protect yourself and verify that the JDM engine is, in fact, the best option.
Someone who refers to a "JDM transmission" is often referring to the JDM-spec Galant VR-4 transmission that was made available in Japan with a "FWD-to-AWD switch". This transmission comes with extra bolts installed that allow the owner to change from FWD to AWD with a small amount of wrenching.
As with the JDM engines, JDM transmission authenticity is always in question unless the unit can be inspected in person by the buyer. The chances of getting the correct part are increased if you are dealing with an expert, DSM-centric shop with experience on the JDM components. While many shops like to claim expertise, the fact remains that unless they have done it before, they probably don't know the differences.
Mopar Combustion Chamber Conditioner. Many DSMers use it to clean out carbon deposits from their engines. Those who need it will find it listed as Mitsubishi part #4318001, available from any Mitsubishi dealer.
With ECMLINK, this should be avoided and is here for historical value only.
A PMS is a Performance Management System, a piggyback engine management computer made for DSMs and other vehicles. As with the AFC and VPC, many DSMers use the PMS as a gateway to higher performance. The good news is that the PMS is more flexible than the VPC, allowing more precise tuning - the bad news is that the PMS is more flexible than the VPC, allowing the operator many more ways to screw up.
Many questions of this type can be answered by the following reference:
A V.I.N. is a Vehicle Identification Number, a unique identifier which is assigned to every automobile at the factory. It is essentially a serial number for your car, and contains a lot of information about the vehicle.
First-generation (1990-1994) VIN numbers are formatted as follows:
1 Country code
4 = USA
? = Canada
E = Eagle
P = Plymouth
A = Mitsubishi
3 Vehicle type
3 = Passenger car
4 Seatbelt type
B = Manual (1G)
C = Automatic (1G)
A = Driver & passenger airbags (2G)
5 Line code
S = FWD (1G)
T = AWD (1G)
K = Eclipse FWD (2G)
L = Eclipse AWD (2G)
X = Eclipse Spyder (2G)
6 Price code
2 = Low
3 = Medium
4 = High
5 = Premium
6 = Special
7 Body code
4 = 3-door hatchback
5 = 2-door convertible
1.8 NT (1G)
R = 2.0L NT (1G)
U = 2.0L T (1G)
Y = 2.0L NT (1G)
F = 2.0L T (2G)
G = 2.4L NT (2G)
9 Check digit
10 Model year
N = 1992
V = 1997
11 Plant code
E = Diamond-Star Motors (1G) / Mitsubishi Motor Manufacturing of America (2G)
12-17 Serial number
000001 to 999999
Other DSMs have similar VIN encoding. Check the shop manual of a particular year for more information.
WWD stands for "Wrong Wheel Drive"
AWD DSM owners used this term to poke fun of FWDers to RWDers, and vice versa.
An 'interference' engine is an engine where the valves and pistons occupy the same space, but not at the same time. The other engine style is a 'non-interference' engine - this design provides enough room between the pistons and the valves so that they never occupy the same space. Non-interference engines are sometimes called 'free-running' designs.
Interference engines are a fairly common engine design. All diesel engines are interference designs, and many imports. Domestic engines have tended towards non-interference designs. Although all engines use timing belts, they are more crucial on interference engines; should the timing belt malfunction, the valves and pistons will likely collide.
While this may seem like a stupid engine design, there are reasons why an engine may be designed as an interference engine. Higher compression ratios are possible, leading to better fuel economy, power, and emissions quality.
Interference engines have the inherent risk of major engine damage due to timing belt failures. See Why is it so important to change the timing belt on a [DSM]?
The balance shaft belt (known as timing belt B to the dealership) is a small auxiliary belt running right next to the main timing belt. It is about 10 mm wide, while the main timing belt is almost 30 mm wide. It is normally called the balance shaft belt because it operates a small, asymmetrical shaft inside the engine called a balance shaft. It can also be referred to as the 'silent shaft belt', since 'silent shaft' is synonymous with 'balance shaft'.
The function of the balance/silent shaft is to smooth out unwanted engine vibrations. The shaft is unevenly weighted. If you were to take a roll of paper towel and cut off half of the 'towel' part without cutting the cardboard center tube, you would have the general shape - more mass on one side than on the other.
The balance shaft belt spins this offset weighted shaft inside the engine block. As it spins, the shaft tends to pull the engine towards the side with the weight on it. As the engine moves forwards, the shaft pulls it backwards, and vice versa. In this way, the engine shake is reduced. Since the shaft helps 'balance' the engine, it may be called a balance shaft. It can also be called a silent shaft, since it not only doesn't drive anything but it also helps quiet the engine down.
There are actually two balance shafts on a DSM engine. One is separate, and is run by the balance shaft belt, while the second shaft is integrated into the oil pump. Both spin in phase with each other.
Balance shafts are not strictly necessary to engine operation, and many engines lack balance shafts altogether. Removing them can increase engine output, as the engine doesn't waste energy spinning the shafts. The engine will run rougher as a result, but most people find the change bearable. Most people also agree that the engine must be properly balanced if you want to remove the balance shafts, to eliminate the possibility of long-term engine damage.
The balance shaft belt is often a culprit in major engine failures. See Why is it so important to change the balance shaft belt on a [DSM]?
See Tom Stangl's VFAQ page. It describes the brake changes and what to do if your rotors appear frozen on the car. [For reference, the required bolts to free stuck front rotors are 8mm in diameter, 1.25mm pitch. Tom Stangl recommends you don't count on them, since often the rotor ends up cracking into pieces instead of breaking off the hubs, so be prepared for the worst.]
For 1G models prior to 1993, and all 1G and 2G non-AWD models, "Big Brakes" refers to upgrading the front brakes to 1993-94 AWD front brakes, which are larger and have more powerful calipers. These larger dual-piston brakes were also used on non-turbo Stealth and Mitsubishi Diamante cars. for the details on this common upgrade.
Sometimes people use this term to describe 1G aftermarket upgrades too, such as Baer 4 piston brake kits, but this is not commonplace on the Talon Digest.
For 2G AWD, this refers to replacing the front brakes with larger non-DSM brake kits, containing 13" rotors and 2 or 4 piston calipers. Brakes from Mustangs and Corvettes have been considered, as well as Baer 4 piston kits.
Some people have looked at moving the front brakes from the 95+ AWDs to the 1G cars, but reportedly nobody has done so yet. The swap is complicated by the fact that some 2G calipers use a different brake line fitting, which requires the use of different brake lines. Other than that, they should bolt on in the same manner as the 1993-94 brakes. One enterprising Digest member has looked at Mazda Turbo II calipers, but has not yet mounted them nor matched them with rotors. Apparantly the mounting brackets are not compatible, either.
While it is true that "big brakes" are Stealth brakes (non-turbo), what most people want to know when they inquire about the Stealth parts is if it is possible to use the extra-large brakes from the turbo Stealth models on their DSM. These massive four-piston monsters are a very hard fit to the DSM family. At a minimum, one would need 17" wheels before even contemplating the upgrade, as the stock 16" rims are likely to hit the brakes themselves.
Fortunately for 1G owners that find even 'big brakes' inadequate, Martin Queckenstedt has found a BIG big brake package from Baer. The kits price out between $800 and $1250 $USD, and combine lightweight 1 or 2 piece 12"-13" rotors with dual piston calipers. Those interested can look up the "Sport" and "Track" kits on the Baer website. There are also other aftermarket 4-piston caliper kits available.
Some potentially useful Mitsubishi part numbers for the big brake upgrade:
The above-mentioned kits include the mounting bracket for the caliper and new caliper mounting bolts.
Fuel cut is cessation of fuel delivery and spark generation by the ECU. It is a pre-programmed response designed to save the turbocharger from utter destruction in the event of a catastrophic wastegate malfunction.
Crankbender@DSMTuners: Fuel cut IS NOT due to low of fuel pressure, too small of injectors, high flowing exhaust, high flowing intake, or large turbos. Fuel cut is actually caused by the ECU seeing more air entering the engine than it was originally programmed to use. This likely cooresponds with an injector duty cycle which is unsafe or unattainable. So basically fuel cut is caused by the MAF seeing too much air. Do not ask what too much air is.
Since fuel cut is caused by the ECU seeing too much air we get fuel cut by increasing the air flow through the MAF.
You can read the answer to How do I prevent fuel cut? in this FAQ.
There is also a thread on DSMTuners Fuel Cut: What is it? How do I fix it? [merged]
The 'speed sensor' is a little reed switch inside the speedometer assembly. Its function is to tell the ECU the vehicle speed. Since the speedometer is driven by a spinning magnet, the switch 'clicks each time the magnet passes by. The ECU then counts the 'clicks' and knows the vehicles speed.
Those curious about reed switch construction and operation can refer to the Reed Switch Wikipedia Entry
A 'chopped' aircan is simply one where a significant part of the can has been cut away - in other words, there is a big hole in it. The cut-away portion can be from 1/4 to 3/4 the size of the air can. Some people remove the airbox altogether, and use other methods to attach the air filter to the mass airflow sensor (MAS).
The theory is simple - the stock airbox, with its 'horn' or 'snorkel' air vent at the front, is a significant restriction to the free flow of air into the engine. Cutting or removing the can eliminates the restriction, allowing more air to flow into the engine. There are several FAQs on how to modify or remove the air can.
In recent years some controversy has arisen concerning this modification. The airbox snorkel may be restrictive, but it also ensures the air drawn into the engine comes from outside the engine compartment, where the air is relatively cool. Removing the snorkel allows hot underhood air to enter the engine, and since hot air is less dense than cool air, this is (theoretically) bad for engine performance. There is no doubt that hotter air is bad; according to Bill McGoldrick in his Jan 01, 1999 posting on the subject:
"A drop in charge air temperature of 20 degrees F yields a 1 motor octane drop in octane requirement. Example: a naturally aspirated engine that needed 93 octane at 90 degrees F could run on 91 octane at 50 degrees F. Turbos and intercoolers complicate things a bit but the formula still holds. By what ever means you lower inlet charge temperature, it's cold out today, big intercooler, more efficient turbo, etc., you'll effectively gain one motor octane number for every 20 degrees F you lower charge temperature."
Proponents of modified air cans point out that it is unlikely underhood temperatures will be significantly different from the outside air temperatures while the car is in motion. They argue that any performance drop will occur while the car is at rest, and will quickly disappear as soon as the car gets moving. There is some evidence that this may be true.
Still, it is possible that the performance gain obtained by removing the intake restriction is offset my a nearly equal loss of performance caused by the introduction of hotter air into the engine. Unfortunately, no one has been able to say for sure if this is the case. In the meantime, modding the air can continues to be a very popular modification on DSMs, as it 'has been done before' and nobody has ever reported decreased performance.
Tom Stangl addresses the hot-air problem in his VFAQ on how to do a ram-air intake. The ram air setup includes panels to block hot underhood air from entering the air intake. This type of air blocking panel/ducting is also a common practice among owners of non-turbocharged cars, who have long recognized the disadvantages of allowing hot air into their engines.
Tom also lists some brief information regarding air intake temperatures, but more information on the effect of the stock air horn can be found in the December 21, 1998 Digest in a post by Gary Schmitz (not yet in the archives). Gary found his air intake temperatures 20 degrees Farenheit hotter without the air horn, as compared to the same setup with the air horn at 60 mph. Howard Draper ran similar tests on his GVR4, and found a 60 degree difference between having the horn and not while the car was in motion.
More opinions on why modified aircans may not be so great come from Greg Campbell, Victor Del Col, Donal Lavoie and Mac Crossett in the Jan 01, 1999 Digest (edited):
"A couple of us did some testing this summer when the temperatures hovered around 100deg [Farenheit] for several weeks.... With the 14B turbo and an open filter (K&N FIPK), temperatures at the MAS were around 135-140degF, or 35-40degF over the ambient air. With 15lbs of boost and the stock intercooler, temperatures at the throttle body exceeded 220degF at WOT! (and maxing out our temperature sensor)
Replacing the [FIPK] with the stock airbox and a drop-in K&N filter, temperatures at the MAS were reduced to ~105degF, or only 5degF over ambient... Temperatures at the TB were reduced to around 185degF at WOT, a significant improvement. With the addition of a front-mount intercooler from a '88 Starion, TB temps dropped to around 145-155degF."
Owing to the continuing debate and somewhat conflicting evidence/results, it is fair to say that the dis/advantages of modified aircans may vary from car to car. In other words, YMMV (your mileage may vary). However, the bulk of real-world testing shows that inlet air temperatures increase when using modified aircans. The debate over the pressure drop induced by the aircan will likely continue for some time.
The 'silencer' is a small circle of zig-zag cardboard inside the back of the air can, behind the 1G mass airflow sensor (MAS). It is not part of the MAS, and appears to have no function other than to quiet things down a bit - in fact, 2Gs have no silencer. It is not the gold honeycomb, which is part of the MAS itself (on the front), so be sure you get the right part.
As for removal, having a shop manual handy makes everything a lot easier.
Performance gains for removing the silencer itself should be expected to be nil; it is not that restrictive. It may provide a slight performance gain when combined with other mods, however, and the removal is simple, making it the first ever 'free mod' for DSMs. It also provides an excellent starting point for newbies who need to learn more about their cars; there is incentive (performance), economy (free) and a difficulty level ideal for non-mechanics (very easy), yet provides a great deal of basic information about the car.
MAS stands for (Mass Airflow Sensor). It is also sometimes called a MAF (Mass Air Flow) sensor.
It is the assembly that measures the properties of the air entering the engine, consisting of three separate sensors. For a complete explanation, please refer to Mike Jackson's excellent DSM MAF Theories Page (Internet Archive)
This refers to a thin, gold-colored grille material located at the front of the mass airflow sensor (MAS). Its reason for living is to 'straighten' out the incoming airflow into the MAS. This is a requirement of the Karmaan vortex airflow sensor used in the MAS. The upper portion of the honeycomb affects the measured air, while the lower portion affects bypass air - air that is not measured by the MAS.
Removing the lower portion of this honeycomb-like material can sometimes help delay fuel cut on 1G DSMs, by adding a few percent more unmetered air into the air/fuel mixture. Some owners, however, complain the mod makes their engine run rougher - the current theory is that the turbulet lower airflow somehow affects the non-turbulent upper airflow where the two flows meet.
Please note that under no circumstances can all of the honeycomb material be removed from the MAS. Doing this will screw up your idle huge, as the MAS airflow measurement gets all screwed up. Only the lower portion may be removed, and generally only on 1G cars.
2G owners often find out they can't remove any of the honeycomb material. Fortunately, since the 2G MAS flows a lot more air than the 1G MAS, the honeycombs should be considered far less of a concern.
The 'Cyclone' intake is the air intake system from a Mitsubishi Cyclone, a car not marketed in North America. This intake is a dual-runner system that keeps some runners closed unless the engine is boosting. The Cyclone is thought to provide slightly better power than the stock intake, but the difference is not significant to the vast majority of DSM owners.
Some Japanese Mitsubishi engines can come with Cyclone intakes installed. Those on the lookout for one should know that there are also Japanese "Cyclone" intakes that do not have the extra runners and associated butterfly valves. These were installed on non-turbo cars.
This intake is not the same as the third-party intake that was marketed as the Cyclone. That intake was a 'magic product' and had nothing to do with Mitsubishi. Neither is it the same as products under similar names marketed for non-DSMs.
These are engine model designators. 4G63 is the Mitsubishi model number for the Sirius engine lineup, which was built entirely by Mitsubishi. The 4G63 model number was used for 1G turbo, 1G non-turbo and 2G turbo engines; although the engines are somewhat different from each other, they retain the same basic design.
Please note that there are different 4G63 engines, although posters on the Talon Digest almost invariably mean the turbo 2.0L version. Generally speaking, components from one 4G63 can be fitted to another 4G63, because the basic components (head, block, etc) are the same.
420A is the model of the Chrysler-made 2G 2.0L non-turbo engine. Fundamentally different from the Mitsu 4G63 engines, the 420A represents a distinct shift in DSM evolution, as Chrysler took over engine duties on the non-turbo cars. Generally, components from 420A engines cannot be fitted to the 4G63 engines, or vice versa.
These are Mitsubishi racing turbos, larger than stock. 16G is the short name for the Mitsubishi TD05-16G, the 20G is a Mitsubishi TD06-20G, and the 25G is a Mitsubishi TD06/07 hybrid turbo.
The 16G is a popular upgrade from the stock DSM turbo. It has been said that this turbo is designed for quick spoolup, which improves streetability and performance in application such as autocross.
The 20G is a much larger unit and is generally reserved for serious drag racers. Once the biggest turbo available, the 20G is now considered a "medium" turbo upgrade at best.
The 25G is a combination turbo based on the 20G. Similar to the "big" 16G, it has "mismatched" compressor and turbine wheels: the turbine wheel is TD06 (stock 20G) while the compressor wheel is bigger. 25Gs very new and extremely hard to find.
Read the Top Ten FAQ for lots of technical information on these and other turbos.
According to Road Race Engineering, a 'small' 16G has a standard compressor wheel. A 'big' 16G has a larger compressor wheel. This is the only difference, but it reportedly leads to a 10% increase in flow. The 'big' 16G is standard on the Lancer Evolution III. Please refer to the RRE link above for details.
A Super 60 or Super 60 is a modified Garrett T25 turbocharger, with an enlarged compressor inlet, housing and compressor fan. It is one of those annoying turbos that has one name but several different possible configurations, depending on the parts installed, with some of the more elaborate configurations being superior to the cheaper lookalikes.
An intercooler is a radiator-like device that sits between the air intake and intake manifold on turbocharged cars. Its function is to cool air passing through it. It is often found on forced-induction cars because turbochargers or superchargers heat air as they pressurize it, which leads to a denser but hotter charge. The intercooler is designed to reduce the temperature of the pressurized air to help prevent detonation.
For more information, read Autospeeds Complete Guide to Intercooling.
A turbo timer is an electronic device which permits the car to run for a fixed length of time after the ignition has been shut off. It's sort of the reverse of a remote car starter, which runs the car before the ignition is switched on. Turbo timers usually have user-selectable run times and can usually be installed around car alarm systems.
The purpose of the timer is to allow the turbocharger additional cool-down time before the engine is shut down. The idea behind this came from the discovery that turbocharger systems can get hot enough to 'cook' the oil left in the turbo oil lines after the engine is shut off. The simple solution to this problem is to circulate oil for a longer period of time after the turbocharger has heated up. The turbo timer simply automates this process so the car operator is not forced to wait in his/her automobile until the desired cooling-down period has transpired.
Many DSM owners believe that turbo timers are a sound investment, or at least a prudent one, when weighed against the possibility of turbo damage due to oil lines partially or completely blocked with 'coke', or cooked oil residue. These timer proponents often point to the red-hot nature of the turbocharger after long runs at 55+ MPH as 'proof' that a turbo timer is a good idea. Other owners report they have run just as long and just as hard without a timer or any special attention provided to cool-down times, and still get turbo longevity and durability equal to those cars using a timer.
Driving patterns could also have a significant effect on the need for a timer. Folks who travel at high speeds almost directly to their destination will have higher turbocharger temperatures at shutdown than those who are required to wait at three or four stoplights or who drive through residential neighborhoods at low speeds before shutting down. Ambient temperatures and vehicle modifications are also likely to play a role.
There are several arguments against the necessity for turbo timers. There have been significant improvements in turbocharger design and oil formulation since the time turbo timers were concieved . This includes the advent of pure synthetic oils, which are more resistant to the turbo heat and free of impurities (such as waxes and varnishes) which contribute to coking problems. Turbochargers are also more precise and better lubricated than in previous designs. These facts are often cited as evidence for the case against turbo timers. The most compelling fact is that the majority of DSMers have never used a turbo timer, and yet there have been very few reports of DSMS 'coking' up the turbo oil lines with overcooked oil.
If you feel the need for a timer, many vendors sell them.
The Last Word: You do not need a turbo timer. But it can occasionally be handy.
Knocking (also called knock, detonation, spark knock, pinging or pinking) in spark-ignition internal combustion engines occurs when combustion of the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder does not start off correctly in response to ignition by the spark plug, but one or more pockets of air/fuel mixture explode outside the envelope of the normal combustion front.
The fuel-air charge is meant to be ignited by the spark plug only, and at a precise point in the piston's stroke. Knock occurs when the peak of the combustion process no longer occurs at the optimum moment for the four-stroke cycle. The shock wave creates the characteristic metallic "pinging" sound, and cylinder pressure increases dramatically. Effects of engine knocking range from inconsequential to completely destructive.
Knocking should not be confused with pre-ignition. They are two separate events. However, pre-ignition is usually followed by knocking.
Also read How does the [DSM] knock sensor work?
A knock sensor is a device for detecting knock or detonation.
Knock sensors come in various styles. The simplest is just a microphone element that picks up engine vibrations and noise and sends the signals to the onboard ECU. This is the type of sensor used on the DSM cars. Other sensors might do some signal processing or filtering inside the sensor before generating the output signal.
A 'knock LED' is a light wired up to the boost control solenoid (BCS) on the engine. The short answers to the other three questions are: Probably, no, and probably not.
Despite it's name, the 'knock LED' DOES NOT MEASURE KNOCK. [Doubters take heed: it DOES NOT.] All the LED is doing is informing you when the boost control solenoid has been tripped by the ECU. This has only the vaguest relation to knock, as there are many other non-knock circumstances that will cause the BCS to trip. This quite possibly gives the 'knock LED' the distinction of being the worst-named modification in the history of DSMs.
For details on this, read prostreets Build a Knock LED
About the only time that you can be certain the 'knock LED' is reporting knock is when it is solidly on. This indicates a last-ditch attempt by the ECU to limit boost, which can only occur when the engine is knocking for prolonged periods of time.
The LED will also flash when the ECU is attempting to limit the turbo boost (1G and 2G cars); when the ECU is "smoothing" out the normal turbo operation (2Gs); and when the car is first started and the ECU transitions the solenoid from fully closed to fully open (all turbo cars). These occurances are perfectly normal and not cause for concern.
As for the question of whether or not your engine is ok, you will only know that by looking at the operational setup and the circumstances under which you believe you may have damaged the engine. If you have been following the typical guidelines for upgrading your engine, you are probably fine. If you have upgraded your engine past the recommended guidelines or had some catastrophic event occur, your engine may be damaged. In real terms, 99% of people who are concerned about their knock LED flashing have absolutely nothing to worry about.
The Last Word: Anyone who actually takes the time to put in a "knock LED" by now is wasting their time. Not that it was ever really useful to begin with. If you truly want to measure knock, get ECMLINK.
Back in the day, there was a gentleman by the alias vanade that created was was probably the closest thing to ecmlink knock monitor for the 1G. ECUVIEW is here for historical purposes only.
Porting is the technique of improving airflow by removing additional material away from a component. Typical components are intake and exhaust manifolds, turbos, wastegates and oxygen sensor housings, all of which can be opened up to achieve better airflow. Porting the O2 sensor housing and/or wastegate is an often recommended cure for boost creep. This uncontrollable rise in intake pressure is often caused by the turbo pushing more air than can be possibly be dumped out of the wastegate and downpipe, despite the wastegate being completely open.
Porting is considered something of an art, with most established vendors claiming that a poor porting job will actually reduce airflow. Some porting services also come with polishing, which some consider a waste owing to the contaminants present in exhaust air.
Many vendors offer porting services for both new and used components.
Clipping is the technique of cutting away some of the material on the fins of the impeller wheel of the turbocharger. In other words, to 'clip' a turbo is to make the fins in the exhaust path smaller. The cut is usually done at an angle of between 10 and 20 degrees - the bigger the angle, the more material is removed from the fins.
This may seem like a dumb thing to do, since smaller fins mean that the exhaust gases will impart less force to the turbine wheel and consequently increase turbo lag. This is true, but the benefit of clipping is found in the high RPM range of the motor. At higher RPMs, the turbo may have already surpassed the required user-set boost levels and is not contributing to engine power.
Since the impeller wheel in the exhaust stream partially blocks the exhaust gas flow (by design), it can act as a significant restriction at high RPMs, when the exhaust flow rate is highest. Clipping the turbo reduces this restriction and allows more air to flow past the turbo wheel at high RPMs, thereby improving airflow through the engine and increasing top-end response.
More details on clipping can be found in a thread on DSMTuners - Exhaust Turbine Clipping
A catch can is a small container, sometimes with a filter, that collects oil blown out of the PCV valve or valve cover intake hose. The idea is to keep the oil out of the intake, which helps keep the intercooler running at maximum efficiency. It has also been reported that the catch can mod can reduce the crankcase pressure, helping to eliminate the problem of having the oil dip stick pop out of the engine. It is necessary to periodically empty the catch can to prevent it from overflowing. Some cans provide a drain for this purpose.
UPDATED: Much of the issue is due to positive crankcase pressure pushing oil into the intake. If you PCV valve is ok and everything else looks good, read up on Jack's Transmissions PCV article. Very interesting.
Other people have installed a K&N 'breather' filter in place of the stock hose. The filter allows gases to escape but keeps liquid oil inside the block, thus providing the same benefit as the catch can without requiring maintenance. Many believe they are too restrictive, but people have used them with good results. Unfortunately, the breather filter can sometimes allow oil to escape and get onto the engine. We recommend you avoid this method.
A shift gate can refer to one of two things. An internal shift gate is a mechanism on the shifter that controls the 'position' of each gear, and sometimes provides a 'lock' feature to prevent the owner from accidental mis-shifting. However, when most people refer to a shift gate, they are talking about an external shift gate.
An external shift gate is a guide - essentially, a thin metal plate with slots cut into it - installed on the shifter of a car. It provides a positional reference for each gear. It is usually installed in an exposed position, so the driver can see it. Some cars, such as certain Ferrari and Mercedes automobiles, come with external shift gates stock.
It is also possible, on some automobiles, to install an external shift gate as an aftermarket accessory. Owners can do this for looks alone, or as a measure to help keep them from accidentally mis-shifting the car into an incorrect gear while racing.
It is not possible to install a shift gate on a DSM without altering the shifter. The reason is that the shifter shaft overlaps the same space in different gears. For example, the shaft position in third gear overlaps the shaft position in first and/or fifth gear. For this reason, it is not possible to install a shift gate that has separate slots cut into it for different gears. The shaft is also hollow, so thinning it is problematic.
With that said, Kyle Grendall has successfully made a shift gate for the DSMs by changing the shifter shaft.
There are also several methods of making the DSM shifter feel more positive. [TODO]
Water injection is a venerable technique for achieving all kinds of good things in the engine by lowering the combustion temperatures. This has a cooling effect on the intake air charge, which increases power and reduces the possibility of knock. This has the same effect as adding extra fuel to the mixture without sacrificing fuel economy. Additionally, less fuel (a leaner mixture) in itself reduces the possibility of detonation. A nice side effect is that the water tends to keep the engine cleaner, whereas extra fuel can actually leave more carbon deposits behind.
The theory is simple: water is atomized into the intake air stream, and is included in the air/fuel mixture burned in the cylinders. Since the cooling effect is not typically needed in everyday driving, the injection system is normally activated by a pressure switch that activates at a preset boost level. The injection point is either just before the throttle butterfly or before the turbocharger, depending on the exact setup. The water is sometimes mixed with alcohol or other fluids.
Downsides to water injection include having to keep water in the tank, and the possibility that a malfunctioning valve might put too much water into the engine, causing serious damage. However, the technique has been around since the 1940s and the risks are arguably no more serious than relying on an over-rich fuel mixture to provide the required cooling effect.
Unfortunately, nobody makes a DSM-specific water injection system; several vendors offer generic versions. Speculation on the subject has been wide and varied over the years, but few people have actually installed such a kit on their cars. Many people regard it as old technology, while others class it with nitrous injection as an 'unfair' system. This lack of practical knowledge and a proper bolt-on kit for DSMs has kept the technique from wide application.
Water injection has recently drawn more attention in the Talon Digest, partly because a group buy for the Spearco WI kit has drawn all the WI users out of the woodwork. There is also a little-known DSM Water Injection Home Page for interested parties, as well as the DSM Water Injection Group from Yahoo! Groups. You can also peruse issues of the Talon Digest from January to mid-February 1999 for DSM-specific information.
Related to, but separate from, the water injection systems is the intercooler sprayer, which sprays water or other coolant directly on the intercooler to help it do it's job. This system provides only minor benefits but is simple, cheap and failsafe, and may be rigged with a pressure switch to activate it during high boost.
Here are some questions answered by Devil's Own Injection Onwer / Operator
Methanol in general is harder on alloys than it is on plastics. Most plastics in a car are a nylon 11 /12 or Polyethylene and are A-Excellent with Methyl Alcohol And generaly most all makers use poly or nylon for the transfer hose for this kits. .
Rubbers in the car and in the system:
Only source of rubber in the car these systems should come in contact with is your hard pipe couplers and they are made from Silicone and its considered A-Excellent with Methyl Alcohol. Now some manufactures sell alcohol injection pumps with viton seals that are C-Fair . So make sure the pumps have EPDM seals. If they don't say then its probley viton, which you don't want.
Alloys in the car and in the system:
Aluminum for example is considered meth compatible by some and not by others. When it boils down to it its the grade of aluminum that causes this. Most aluminum go kart tanks that are not anodized will not fair well with constant contact with methanol. Aluminum intakes for example, since they are not under constant contact and they are a lot more substantial would be considered compatible. All of your Stainless Steels are grade A
Brass, while considered compatible with both water and meth we have found for it to create a coating on the inside of these systems, This is the main reason we use Nickle plating on all the fittings.
Nitrous is often referred to as NOS. This is not technically correct. NOS is the acronym for Nitrous Oxide Systems, a company that has done it's best to become synonymous with the use of nitrous oxide.
The distinction has become so blurred that it was lost even in the popular racing movie "The Fast and the Furious", where characters routinely referred to nitrous oxide systems as "NOS". Interestingly, some claim Nitrous Oxide Systems was a sponsor of the movie. Regardless, however convenient it may be, "NOS" is not a term, abbreviation or contraction for nitrous oxide.
Nitrous oxide is a gaseous oxidizer (N2O) which is injected into the engine intake. As with any chemical name, "nitrous oxide" is not capitalized since it is not a proper noun.
During the heat of the combustion cycle, it breaks down, releasing relatively large amounts of oxygen into the air/fuel mixture. Since nitrous is 30% oxygen, compared to normal air at 21% oxygen, more fuel burns in the cylinder, which results in more power.
Also, as the highly-pressurized N2O liquid is introduced into the intake air, it expands. This expansion requires heat, which is taken from the surrounding air. The net result is an overall drop in the temperature of the intake air charge, resulting in higher air density (more power) and cooler combustion temperatures (less knock).
A byproduct of the nitrous injection is that the timing on the car must generally be retarded to compensate for the increased burn rate of the mixture. In normal-air applications, the spark is set off before the cylinder reaches top-dead-center (TDC - the maximum height in the cylinder) because it takes time for the air/fuel mixture to ignite. Ideally, the piston reaches TDC just before the mix ignites completely, resulting in maximum power. The nitrous-enhanced mix burns faster, so the ignition must occur later or else the piston will still be moving towards TDC when the mix ignites. This can be extremely hard on an engine. The knock-sensing abilities of the DSM engine computer will help prevent this occurance.
Used by dentists as an anesthetic gas, automotive systems avoid medical industry regulation by mixing in foul-smelling sulfur gas, preventing automotive gas from being inhaled. It also makes nitrous-equipped vehicles smell bad while using the system.
The amount of nitrous is usually controlled by the size of the injectors ("jets"), which are rated according to the expected horsepower gain. Some form of electronic or manual control is also employed; on DSMs a favorite controller is a boost-sensitive switch, which automatically kicks in the nitrous delivery at the appropriate time. Nitrous can also be used directly on an intercooler to cool down the intake air - such a system is called a 'fogger', and provides more cooling but potentially less oxygen.
A "wet" nitrous system injects fuel along with the N2O gas. A "dry" system does not. "Wet" systems are harder to tune since the introduction of additional fuel is an added complication.
Nitrous systems may not generally be used except at full acceleration, over a certain RPM, and (of course) require periodic refills. Still, there is no doubt that it is an effective way of getting a lot of horsepower. 50 hp systems are common, but it is possible to get over 200 hp, provided your car can handle it. They also provide unaltered driveability and fuel economy under normal conditions, since the N2O is only supplied on demand.
Those familiar with the movie "The Fast and the Furious" and "Gone In 60 Seconds"will remember various characters pressing buttons on the steering wheel to activate their nitrous systems. This is not normally the case. Instead, nitrous systems are generally set on throttle position or boost pressure switches and activated automatically as soon as the throttle is near 100% open.
Nitrous oxide systems are sold by Nitrous Oxide Systems and many other vendors. They cost roughly $500-$1000, depending on the complexity and application.
Nitrous oxide systems are not widely used on DSMs, as there is a perception among the DSM community that nitrous systems are a form of 'cheating'; that is, no special effort or knowledge is required in order to make a car fast if you use nitrous oxide. This is not particularily true - nitrous systems are no more 'drop-in' than a side mount intercooler - but it is easy to point out that most DSM upgrades are full-time, whereas nitrous systems may only be used under particular circumstances. Also, there are no DSM-specific nitrous kits - universal kits work - and the equipment cost is relatively high.
Despite any old prejudices, nitrous systems seem to be coming back into vogue among high-end DSM racers as a legitimate method of producing raw power. Some DSMs have dyno results showing no less than 611 horsepower, 70 of which were gained through the use of a nitrous kit. Cars of this type generally have few options left to achieve big power gains.
Nitrous systems have unconventional uses as well. To the dismay of the competition, some DSMers even fitted a rental Nissan Maxima with nitrous at the 1997 Oklahoma Shootout (the NOS-Xima), showing that even a hopeless family sedan can turn decent times on the bottle. (Note this is not the same Maxima described below.). Metnal note. Never buy used rentals.
You may want to read the statement and see the pictures provided by Doyle & Victoria Schoenberger, who had a 15 lb. nitrous bottle explode in the rear of their 1991 Nissan Maxima while it was parked in their garage. They experienced significant damage to the home, as well as the total destruction of their car. The explosion was apparantly due to a triple failure - the nitrous bottle heater was wired so that it could be powered even if the ignition was off, the heater was accidentally left on, and the safety vent on the bottle failed to operate. While this can safely be classed as a freak event (or even some type of scam, as some people suggest), it is nevertheless a powerful argument - one must never become complacent when working with compressed gases. When handled properly, they are safe, but any carelessness could result in severe damage or death.
The argument that nitrous is 'cheating' often arises.. This assertion implies that there exist rules (written or unwritten) which govern how DSMs should be set up. Since there are no such rules (unless, of course, individuals get together and agree on a set for their own purposes) it is difficult to justify this position, and Digesters have long since become tired of the discussion - please resist the temptation to reopen the topic.
"Waterwetter" is a coolant additive made by Red Line Oil, a performance fluids manufacturer. It is added to normal coolant to improve the heat transfer ability, in order to lower engine temperatures.
On first glance, Waterwetter would seem to be another 'magic' product. After all, the engine cannot run at a lower temperature unless a low-temperature thermostat is installed. However, it is important to realize that there is a difference between the thermostat temperature and the engine temperature. The thermostat regulates coolant temperature. The engine block, which is creating heat during the combustion cycle, is at a higher temperature.
If the coolant has poor heat transfer characteristics, the coolant is unable to absorb heat from the block and carry it away. This leads to a significant difference in temperature between the block and the coolant, with the block becoming hotter. Improving the heat transfer characteristics of the coolant allows it to absorb more heat, making the block run cooler.
The reverse is true at the radiator. A fluid with poor heat transfer may not be able to transfer the accumulated heat to the radiating surfaces. This can lead to heat buildup in the cooling system.
Whether Waterwetter is 'worth it' is up to the individual. Few people report performance gains with it; rather, it is viewed as simply a prudent thing to use.
Majority of Summer only DSM owners run Distilled Water + WatterWetter only with no ill effect. Some say that a little more lubrication is required for the water pump so 80% Distilled Water / 20% Coolant + Water Wetter.
If your DSM sees near freezing temps, no less than 50/50. Unless you want to blow your freeze plugs.
A 'short block' is an engine that includes only the following components:
A short block could be defined as a complete 'lower half' of an engine. However, short blocks usually do not have an oil pump, oil pan, or water pump.
A 'long block' includes all of the components for a short block, plus:
A long block is not a complete engine. Missing parts include carburators or injectors, exhaust manifold, turbocharger(a) or supercharger(s) (if any), intercooler(s) (if any), and so forth.
A 'balanced' engine is an engine constructed of components that are as evenly weighted as possible. This allows the engine to operate with as little vibration as possible.
For example, if you rotate a shaft that is heavier on one side than the other side, the shaft will "pull" towards the heavy side. This is how the vibration mechanisms in pagers and cell phones work - by spinning an unevenly weighted shaft on a motor.
This sort of an effect is generally undesireable in a automobile engine, and most manufacturers try to make the rotating components as symmetrical as possible. Larger components, such as crankshafts and flywheels, must generally be very close to ideal to prevent unwanted engine shake in consumer automobiles. Unfortunately, economics often dictate that less-than-ideal parts be used, and some engine vibration is generally tolerated.
In general, to balance an engine, all of the rotating parts need to be balanced - sometimes individually, and often as a set. This involves removing material from the 'heavy' side of the rotating components, either by drilling holes, or machining off some material. Special machines are often used to spin the components at the operating speeds, to identify which sides are the 'heaviest' on the complex mechanical shapes used for today's engines. In other cases, components are matched, by weight, to each other. Tolerances on such matching generally stay within 1/2 of a gram.
The net result of a balanced engine is generally a smoother-operating engine, sometimes with a touch more power output than before. It is often performed on racing engines, which require not only peak power output, but are frequently stripped of the other mechanisms that would normally reduce engine shake and noise. It is a labor-intensive and sometimes expensive procedure.
A 'blueprinted' engine is an engine that has been remanufactured to conform exactly to the manufacturer's official specifications - the blueprints, as it were.
You might assume that an engine costing thousands of dollars would already conform to spec. Well, it invariably does, but only within a certain tolerance. Automotive manufactuers already make engine parts (and other components) to tolerances that would have been economically impossible just a few years ago, but economics still plays a factor. To make a 'perfect' engine would require such exacting checks, and such frequent remanufacturing of parts, as to be impossible on a mass scale.
On an individual scale, though, it is certainly possible - given enough time and labor - to build a 'perfect' (really, a near-perfect) engine. Such an engine would realize its peak power output, best fuel economy, and best possible emissions quality due to the 'ideal' interaction between all of the components. Of course, few people need such a machine, and blueprinting is normally reserved for high-performance racing engines.
A stroker motor is any engine that has been modified to increase its displacement by extending the length of the piston stroke. This involves changing the crankshaft, and possibly the connecting rods and pistons, to increase the maximum combusion chamber size inside the engine. Compression ratios may also be changed, or the design may involve using additional parts to negate this. The net result is usually an engine with significantly more power than the regular engine but lower revving.
A 'bored' engine is an engine that has larger-than-factory pistons installed in it. This involves machining the piston chambers in the block to a larger size, and the installing oversize pistons to match. This again increases the displacement of the engine, and allows the user greater flexibility in choosing their overall compression ratio. The intention, again, is to eke more power from the engine.
If both of these methods are used on an engine, the engine is said to be 'bored and stroked'. Since performing one process usually takes a significant amount of labor, many people find that they may as well do both. Also, people who really want the power are likely to really want to do both. Both methods involve modifying the lower half of the engine.
The stroker motor is an extreme (and extremely expensive) method of increasing power; it is not a popular mod on DSMs or any other car because of the high initial expense, overall complexity and relatively small margin for error.
One little-known but useful fact for overbore proponents is that Mitsubishi sells factory overbore pistons. 1G owners can purchase 0.25mm, 0.50mm and 1.0mm overbore - 0.50mm and 1.0mm overbore are available in 2G style. Since the pistons are interchangeable between 1G and 2G engines (with accompanying changes in compression ratio), these provide additional options to the engine rebuilder. The best part is price - at the time this page was last updated the cost for the 2G pistons was less than $40 ($US) each.
"Knife edging" is the practice of "sharpening" the motor crankshaft so it is no longer round. The major benefit to this technique is reduced rotational mass. Also, the edges are said by some to reduce the resistance of the crankshaft as it is dipped into the oil in the bottom of the engine.
Knife edging is an esoteric technique and is not usually done unless a complete engine rebuilt is already intended.
The jury is still out on the benefits.
Cryogenic treatment is the process of using extreme cold temperatures to mechanically strengthen a material. One of the newest processes available to automotive enthusiasts, it generally appears to fall into the category of a magic product.
Unfortunately for those seeking a clear answer, discussions on the Digest have revealed that there may be some benefit to properly done cryogenic treatment in specific limited applications. Specifically, the materials must be high alloy steel. Low carbon steel, iron, aluminum, nylon, natural or synthetic rubber, polymers and plastics apparantly cannot benefit, since the cryogenic process is designed to convert austenite into martensite, and these substances only exist inside steels.
Wayne Kasel-Zuzek, who is by profession a metallurgical engineer, also believes that the cryogenic process may only be applied during manufacture as part of the quenching (cooling) process for steels, and that post-quench cryogenic treatment does nothing. His theory is that if a room-temperature quench does not produce the desired amount of martensite, then a cryogenic quench may achieve the desired (or, at least, a superior) result. He also points out that quenched steels, regardless of manufacture, must be tempered prior to use, since martensite is a desireable intermediate stage but is too brittle to be used as a finished product. Once the steel is tempered, he believes there is little that the cryogenic process can accomplish.
Here is a good starting point for reading up on Cryogenics
Also know as the circle of forces, the 'traction circle' is not a real thing. It is a concept - a model for describing tire grip on a car.
The basic principle is simple: tires can only grip so much, in any direction, before they lose grip and start to slide. The sliding is caused by force on the tire. The forces are caused by acceleration, braking, cornering, or some combination of these.
Using a bit of simple physics, the tire grip can be represented by a circle surrounding the contact patch of the tire. The bigger the circle, the more traction the tire has - hence, the term 'traction circle'. If tires gripped equally well in all directions, the 'traction circle' really would be a circle. Since most tires don't, the traction circle is usually oval shaped.
Although it is difficult to actually model a traction circle for any given tire, the concept is helpful to performance drivers because it perfectly describes the relationship between braking and cornering grip on a tire. If the driver stays within the traction circle of the tire, the tire sticks. Stay on the edge, and you are getting the maximum possible grip for that tire. If the driver exceeds the limits of the traction circle, the tire slides, leading to a loss of both tire grip and control.
Several factors influence the traction circle for a tire: tire type, driving surface, load (weight) on the tire, and the amount of tire in contact with the road, among others. Since the traction circle is a general concept, it can be applied either to individual tires (one at a time) or to the car in general (all four tires at once).
Here is a great wikipedia article on Circle of Forces
Camber angle is the angle made by the wheels of a vehicle; specifically, it is the angle between the vertical axis of the wheels used for steering and the vertical axis of the vehicle when viewed from the front or rear. It is used in the design of steering and suspension. If the top of the wheel is farther out than the bottom (that is, away from the axle), it is called positive camber; if the bottom of the wheel is farther out than the top, it is called negative camber.
Camber angle alters the handling qualities of a particular suspension design; in particular, negative camber improves grip when cornering. This is because it places the tire at a better angle to the road, transmitting the forces through the vertical plane of the tire rather than through a shear force across it. Another reason for negative camber is that a rubber tire tends to roll on itself while cornering. The inside edge of the contact patch would begin to lift off of the ground if the tire had zero camber, reducing the area of the contact patch. This effect is compensated for by applying negative camber, maximizing the contact patch area. Note that this is only true for the outside tire during the turn; the inside tire would benefit most from positive camber.
Read more here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camber_angle
The wheel is never located directly under the shock/strut mounting point on the car. The amount by which the wheel leads/trails the mounting point is caster. Positive is wheel ahead, negative is wheel behind.
In more detail, from a post by Kris Rozon:
"Think of caster as the amount the actual wheel is either ahead, or behind the top strut mount. If the wheel is ahead of the top mount, as in one of those Harley's with the big Chopper-Bar front fork things, then that is positive caster.
If you had negative caster, that is the same as a shopping cart's rear wheels. They trail the mounting point.
The more positive caster you have, the tighter the steering and the more the steering wheel will want to center itself. I am not aware of any side effects of too much caster, but there must be some. Obviously too much negative caster would be bad (kinda like the wobbly wheel on the shopping cart).
So, if one wheel is a great amount more negative or positive than the other, then you will notice a pull in the steering wheel. This is what some on the digest have experienced regardless of numerous alignments and tire balances. The steering wheel will also seem to turn one way better than the other. The front of the DSM is not alignment-friendly."
Some have reported that too much positive caster promotes road wander. Ernie Coursolle (Dakota) pointed out, based on his experience with pre-86 Corvettes, that not enough positive caster may also cause wander. The '84 'Vette reportedly tended to wander around a lot with only 3 degrees of positive caster. Once the specs were changed in 1986 to 6 degrees, the 'Vette lost the wander, and realigning the '84 to '86 specifications eliminated the wander on the older car. Still, most agree that extreme positive caster is a bad thing, which simply means that too much of a good thing is just as bad as not enough - just like everything else.
Oversteer is when the rear of the car tends to move towards the outside of a curve. This is a familiar situation for those familiar with RWD vehicles, especially in slippery or wet conditions. Oval racing fans refer to this condition as 'loose' and know from experience it causes a lot of crashes as the rear ends of the stock cars lose traction. RWD vehicles tend to oversteer, while FWD/AWD cars tend more towards understeer. What is understeer?
Perhaps harder to visualize than oversteer, understeer is where the front of the car tends to push towards the outside of a curve. This is the opposite of oversteer, and is difficult to understand intuitively. Oval racing fans call this 'tight' handling, and while it does not tend to cause crashes, it tends to slow the drivers down a fair bit, as they constantly fight the wheel to keep the car on the curve.
Northern residents are perhaps the most familiar with understeer from driving in icy conditions; that awful sensation you get from turning the wheel and finding the car keeps going in a straight line! This is understeer at it's worst - the complete loss of front-wheel traction. Understeer is commonly referred to as a 'push' (with the car 'pushing' into the turns) perhaps because it seems like something is shoving the front end of the car away from the desired turning line.
FWD cars tend toward understeer partly because of the location of the drive wheels, and partly by design - understeer is considered an easier condition for the average driver to handle. AWD cars are usually based on FWD platform, so they inherit the basic handling characteristics, including understeer. Both FWD and AWD DSMs tend to understeer a lot, a constant annoyance to those drivers wishing to corner quickly.
You can also check out What is oversteer?
This is generally wheel hop, also known as a convenient automatic windsheild wiper activation feature. Both AWD and FWD DSMs apparantly suffer from this, in proportion to other mods; FWDs tend towards front wheel hop, AWDs prefer rear hop.
Not really caused by wheels bouncing, wheel hop occurs when the tires are getting/loosing grip in rapid sucession. Wheel hop tends to stress transmissions, differentials and other driveline components quite badly. It has also been posted that the majority of center differential failures are directly related to wheel hop. Slicks, stiff suspensions, hard launches and burnouts promote wheel hop, and the resulting driveline failures.
Mark's solution (provided by Road Race Engineering) involves filling the stock engine mounts with polyurethane rubber to make them stronger.
Other FWD solutions include: equal tire pressures (left to right), lower tire pressures, softer suspension, a front sway bar (not strut tower brace) and less drastic launch techniques. AWD solutions include: equal tire pressures, softer suspension, and less drastic launch techniques.
Scott Willard describes his experience with a loose driveshaft striking the bottom of his car. This is not the same as wheel hop but has the same symptoms - he describes a test to differentiate between the two conditions. AWD cars which exhibit a thumping from the rear are likely to have this problem, which is caused by worn carrier bearings. The solution to this problem is listed on the VFAQ Locator; the $5.00 Carrier Bearing Fix page has the details.
"Chunking" is when the bond between the tire tread and the main body (carcass) fails, and large pieces of the tread fall off of the tire. Most motorists will remember seeing large pieces of tire tread left on the side of the road by passing 18-wheeler trucks. This is a similar problem aggrevated by the routine use of retreaded tires in the trucking industry.
Most enthusiasts who experience chunking are road racers of some type. This is because the tire heats up much more during racing. A race tire also experiences much larger forces due to cornering and its own rotational speed.
From Keith Sontheimer in the May 19, 2002 Digest:
"I've been told by several tire experts, chunking happens when a tire's tread heats up unevenly (top to bottom). If the outside of the tread block closest to the road heats up substantially quicker before the rest of the block closer to the carcass does, then chunking can occur.
Usually this happens when you go out on the track, and begin pushing your tires too soon. They haven't had a chance to heat up all the way through, and the chunking begins. It usually takes 3-5 easy laps at 75-80% of the pace you normally run to heat them up, depending on the tire."
A strut tower brace is a metal bar that connects two shocks (either both front or both rear) together at the top. In this context, the shock/strut assemblies are called "strut towers". A front brace is located in the engine compartment under the hood, while the rear one is located in the hatch or trunk area.
The function of a strut tower brace is to reduce the amount of movement of the shocks under hard cornering. The brace stiffens up the car frame and helps prevent the wheel from being temporarily "bent" out of place as cornering forces try to push the wheel to one side. It also keeps the two opposing wheels from moving out of place relative to each other - keeping the two struts connected together helps this. The net effect is an improvement in cornering and in suspension "feel". Most DSMers report improvements after installing a brace.
Most braces are adjustable. Since the bar can be lengthened or shortened (put under tension or compression) most new owners are concerned about adjusting the brace "correctly". The method of installation doesn't seem to be too important. Most people shorten the bar to tension it up - the bars are likely stronger under tension than compression. However, for rear braces, one may want to extent the bar to try and keep the rear tires as flat as possible during hard launching. It doesn't really seem to matter a whole lot as long as the brace firmly connects both strut towers together.
The Last Word: According to non-DSMers, the typical DSM strut tower brace is useless. Firstly, there are hinges on either side, which allows the brace to pivot independently of the chassis - which totally defeats the purpose of the brace. Secondly, the brace midpoint is never attached to the engine bay firewall. "Real" braces are attached to the engine bay wall and are a single monolithic part. Real result or placebo effect? We'll never know.
A coilover is an automobile suspension device. "Coilover" is short for "coil spring over shock". It consists of a shock absorber with a coil spring encircling it. The shock absorber and spring are assembled as a unit prior to installation, and are replaced as a unit when the shock absorber has leaked. This provides damping without torsional loads. Some coilovers allow adjustment of ride height and preload, using a simple threaded spring perch similar to a nut. More advanced adjustable coilover systems use a threaded shock body, along with an adjustable lower mount for ride height adjustment, while an adjustment knob is used to adjust damping. Stiffness is changed by switching the spring for one with a different spring rate.
In mechanics, an 'eccentric' isn't a nutcase billionare - is something that has an off-center hole in it. For example, take a small wheel, with a mounting shaft run through it. In a regular wheel, the shaft runs through the center. An eccentric wheel is just like a regular wheel, except the shaft doesn't run through the center; it runs through an off-center hole.
An eccentric bolt is usually a bolt with a collar on it. The bolt shaft is tapered in the middle to run through the collar, so the bolt is thinner in the middle and thicker at the ends. The collar has an off-center hole in it and is free to rotate.
As can be seen in this sketch, an eccentric bolt allows adjustment through rotation. As the bolt assembly is rotated, the collar moves further off-center. This property is what makes eccentric bolts useful for adjusting and aligning different connected parts. They are frequently used in DSMs and other automobiles for suspension adjustments.
A "banjo" bolt is a hollow bolt used in conjunction with "banjo fittings" to connect fluid lines together. Such bolts are used in the DSM fuel and oil systems. The fuel system bolt in particular is considered a restrictive element. Pictures of banjo bolts can be found on the wikipedia banjo fitting page.
Blow-by is the leaking of combustion gases past the piston rings and into the engine block. All engines have some blow-by, since piston rings can never seal perfectly. Most cars have a vent (the positive crankcase ventilation valve, or PCV valve) which lets these gases out of the engine block while keeping (most) of the oil in.
On DSMs, the PCV valve is connected via a hose to the air intake. Since oil leaks out of the PCV valve, oil gets into the intake and usually gums up the inside of the intercooler. Many DSMers remove the connecting hose to correct this problem. To prevent oil spraying into the engine compartment, they also install either a filter or a catch can [[What is a catch can?]] in place of the PCV valve.
A 'walking' crankshaft is a crankshaft that moves too much inside the engine. This is also known as excessive thrust bearing play. The movement is usually due to the crankshaft not fitting inside its bearings correctly. While not bad for the crankshaft, the movement can place excessive or uneven loads on the bearings, causing premature failures.
Many 2G owners have suffered from walking crankshafts. It appears that Mitsubishi built many 2G engines using defective crankshafts, which were machined out of specification and are thus capable of moving around too much inside the block. All 2G model years appear to be affected to some degree.
To fix this problem, Mitsubishi has designed several versions of matching crankshaft bearings. This allows the defective motor to retain the crankshaft, yet matches the bearings correctly so as to eliminate the excessive crankshaft movement. Matching the bearings in this manner is tricky and requires exact information about when the crankshaft was manufactured, which may be determined by color markings on the crankshaft itself. The 2G factory manual includes information on how to match crankshafts to bearings.
1G owners do not generally need to worry, as there are no chronic problems with crankwalk in per-1995 cars. However, it is possible for any engine to experience crankwalk if there is a problem with the crankshaft bearings. It has been reported that 'small rod' / 7-bolt flywheel motors (manufactured from later 1992 through 1994 on 1Gs) are more prone to crankwalk than 'big rod' / 6-bolt flywheel engines (manufactured from 1989 to early 1992). However, there can be no guarantees, since big block V8s and all other engines can also suffer from crankwalk.
It can be difficult to tell if a particular car is experiencing crankwalk. Symptoms are usually indirect and difficult to diagnose until major damage occurs.
Since the clutch places pressure on the crankshaft, many owners have reported clutch or shifting problems associated with the walking crank. Having the clutch 'stick' down on left-hand turns is often a telltale sign of crankwalk. Other symptoms include inconsistent engagement height, poor or rough engagement, difficulty shifting, ticking noises and varying pedal height or pressure. Another possibility is having the engine RPM decrease significantly when the clutch pedal is down.
Another problem with crankwalk is that the crankshaft may move so much as to literally tear up and destroy the 2G crankshaft angle sensor. This problem usually manifests itself as a ticking noise coming from the timing belt area, as the sensor is literally and slowly ground away by the crankshaft. Any such noise should be investigated right away to prevent serious problems.
Unfortunately, cranshaft angle sensor failure usually leads to a replacement sensor, rather than a replacement crankshaft, as mechanics fail to diagnose the underlying problem. 2G owners who have experienced premature failure of the crankshaft angle sensor should investigate the possibility of a walking crankshaft immediately.
For more information, read Road Race Engineering's archive of posts that contains all of the Talon Digest posts about the walking crankshaft problem.
Although 2G DSM owners have been anxiously awaiting a recall or TSB on the crankwalk problem, there is none as yet. It is doubly important that affected 2G owners get their bearings (or blocks, if necessary) replaced before their warranty expires. This might be difficult for owners of aftermarket clutches, as dealerships often claim the aftermarket pressure plates are the cause of the problem.
The 4-door sedan member of the DSM line. The VR-4 model shares the same unusual AWD drivetrain as the other DSMs, as well as the turbocharged 4-cylinder Mitsubishi engine. There was also an unusual GSX model, which had the AWD drivetrain driven by a non-turbocharged engine; something you could not get in Eclipse, Talon or Laser cars. The VR-4 also came standard with an all-wheel steering that is unique among the DSM family. More details are available here.
The Galant is no longer in production.
The Eclipse CT was a cabriolet (convertible) concept model of 1G DSM that may have been shown in Europe in the 1990s. It was never mass-marketed, and DSMers had to wait until the 1995 model year before a convertible model was introduced.
Information on the CT is extremely limited. It is not known for certain if the car was ever built at all, aside from a bare few concept cars. However, according to Johannes Schweidler, the car may have been marketed in 1994 in Germany. All of the available literature appears to be in German, which supports this conclusion. However, it was also made in the 1990-1991 body style (with pop-up headlights) which would have been unusual for a DSM marketed in 1994. He also never saw one, which indicates they might not have been sold after all.
This car may have been the precursor to the 1996 Spyder convertible. Kris Kjelstrup also mentions a 1G convertible concept car on display at the DSM plant. Mark Luttrell has also confirmed that a hand-assembled commemorative Eclipse CT was on display in a Mitsubishi factory in celebration of the one millionth car produced there; unfortunately, photographs were prohibited.
If we assume this display concept is an Eclipse CT, we can conclude from posts that the CT was a FWD car. It also seems likely that it used the turbocharged 4G63 engine, as well, since concept cars tend to pack a lot of power.
Unfortunately, some of the on-line information on the CT has already become unavailable. For an idea of what the car is/was like, take a look at these technical drawings.
Update: As of the 2002 model year, the Lancer is now sold in the U.S.A., but it is not the "Evolution" version. Rather, it is a 120 hp family sedan.
For the 2003 model year, Mitsubishi made the Lancer Evolution VIII available in the USA. It is not available in Canada owing to stricter crash safety regulations, but the next iteration should be available in Canada.
The Lancer came to America some time ago, in the watered-down Toyota Camera-esque form. Recently, Canadians now have the option of buying the Evo. There is a rumour 2015 will be mitsubishi levo's last year.
The Last Word: It's 2016 and there are no new GSR / MRs in sight. Goodbye Evo.
This car is the same as a Galant GSX - a non-turbo AWD sedan. There is little other information available; you can read this description provided by About.com and Allpar. It should be noted that the engine used in the "mighty" versions of the DSM family is presumably the 200 HP 2.0L turbo, not the 135 HP 2.0L non-turbo used in the 2000GTX family.
CFDF stands for Centerforce Dual-Friction, a popular clutch upgrade for DSMs. See the Centerforce web site for details.
The ACT 2100 and 2600 are clutches manufactured by Advanced Clutch Technology. They are popular clutch upgrades for DSMs.
Unfortunately, the 2100 and 2600 designations don't match the part numbers shown on their website. The correct part number for the ACT 2100 kit (disc and plate) is MB1-HDSS; the ACT 2600 kit is the MB1-XTSS. Check out the kits for the part numbers of the respective friction discs and pressure plates.
A 6-bolt engine is one that has a 6-bolt flywheel - that is, there are 6 bolts holding the flywheel to the crankshaft. A 7-bolt motor has 7 bolts there.
Along with the flywheel change, there are many other internal changes between the two engines. The crankshafts are different sizes, as are the rods and crankshaft seals. 6-bolt motors have 'big' rods, while 7-bolt engines have 'small' rods. The journal and bearing widths different, although the bearing diameters are the same.
There may also be other changes between the two engines, and the parts are not interchangeable.
3-bolt rear axle assemblies have 3 bolts attaching the axle to the wheel hub. 4-bolt axles have 4 bolts, as well as beefier axle cups, and are therefore far stronger. See Tom Stangl's 3-bolt to 4-bolt conversion VFAQ for lots of great information. You can also read the answer to How can I tell if my car has a 4-bolt rear end? in this FAQ.
Mitsubishi and Chrysler dealerships have earned the nickname 'Satan' over the past two decades by the DSM membership. This is because of the numerous horror stories circulated by reliable individuals concerning the quality of service provided by these dealerships. Also, the high cost of factory replacement parts contributed to the name. Apparantly, even the coveted 5-star service rating is no defense against various forms of service stupidity.
In all fairness, not all dealerships deserve the nickname 'Satan'. Some, like Talahassee Mitsibishi in Tallahassee, FL, have offered substantial discounts on factory parts to the Club DSM membership. Many other owners have reported good to excellent service from their local dealers. As with all things, your mileage may vary (YMMV).
Nevertheless, this particular term of endearment is reserved solely for those specific dealerships which provide bad service.
It is always best to shop around for parts and do your own mechanical work on your car. Unless you are rich.
'Blue book' refers to Kelley's Blue Book, a pricing guide that lists the actual dealer costs, manufacturer's suggested retail price (MSRP), shipping costs, and other pricing information on new cars. The 'blue book price' usually refers to the actual price the dealer pays the factory for a vehicle.
It should be noted that car dealerships don't often use the Blue Book for pricing information. They usually use the National Automobile Dealer Association (NADA) guide. It has been suggested that the Kelley Blue Book listings are not accurate.
Although few people realize it, the blue book is now online at www.kbb.com; the information gleaned from this resouce can be a powerful ally in negotiating a fair price with a dealer. Copies of the 'blue book' and other valuable auto pricing resources can also be found at most public libraries in the reference section.
'Red book' refers to the Automotive Red Book, a pricing guide that lists the selling prices of used automobiles. Less well-known than the 'blue book' the 'official' red book is generally only available in libraries. (There is one online version, but it's for Australia.) Look in the library reference section to find it, and remember to have a few quarters for the photocopier handy.
Paradoxically enough, the Kelley's Blue Book website offers pricing information on used cars, as do lots of other buying guides online, making the 'red book' less valuable than it once was.
Speed shifting (No Lift To Shift) is when you shift without letting up on the throttle. Usually you bounce off of the 7500 RPM rev limiter.
ECMLINK now provides a no lift to shift feature slightly reducing the strain while speed shifting. The rev limiter is lowered to your preset when you push the clutch in instead of bouncing at 7500rpm or higher.
Power shifting is when you shift without letting up on the throttle, and without using the clutch. It can be done, but is very hard on the transmission. Most people who do this become expert transmission rebuilders (or simply broke, or both) in a short period of time. Most Dogbox manufacturers don't even recommend no clutch and recommend a blip of clutch. (cut load for a brief second)
'Heel-and-toe' shifting is a driving technique that allows the driver to clutch, brake and keep the engine RPMs at a certain level, all at the same time. It is a useful racing technique that allows a driver to downshift without losing speed (or control of the car), expecially when entering corners.
The problems facing a driver when approaching a hard corner at high speed are numerous. Firstly, they want to approach the corner at the highest speed possible, and brake at the last moment, to achieve the fastest entry. Secondly, they need to carry as much speed as possible through the corner, often riding on the very edge of losing control over the car. Thirdly, they need to shift gears downwards in order to select the correct gear for the duration of the corner, as well as allowing maximum power on corner exit. Fourthly, they must ensure that when they shift gears, the engine speed is high enough to allow the new gear to engage without adversely slowing down or speeding up the drive wheels. Failure to accomplish this last point may mean a loss of control - remember, the car may be on the ragged edge, and if the engine forces the wheels to change speed the car may begin a skid or spin from which the driver cannot recover.
While this would normally take three feet - one for each pedal - to clutch, brake, and accelerate all at the same time, ordinary two-legged people can accomplish this by twisting their right foot into a position that allows it to touch both the brake and gas pedals at the same time. While several different positions are possible, most people adjust the foot so that the toe is on the brake, and the heel is on the gas - hence, 'heel-and-toe'. Some drivers prefer to have their right foot 'straddle' the brake and gas, using the sides of the foot to control pedal movement. The exact position depends on the driver and the pedal configuration in the automobiles - some cars are better set up for heel-and-toe than others.
In this position, the driver can brake (right toes) into the corner, clutch (left foot) and shift gears, and hit the gas (right heel) to bring the engine speed up to the desired level. He can then declutch and enjoy a smooth transition into the selected lower gear, reducing or eliminating the risk of a rough engagement that might upset the automobile. From that point, the feet may return to their normal driving positions, and the driver can brake, cruise, or accelerate as the situation demands.
Heel-and-toe shifting, while simple in theory, can be very hard in practice. Drivers must practice a great deal to achieve the necessary coordination. Also, some cars have pedal arrangements that make heel-and-toe shifting difficult. Missed shifts are common for the novice, as is grinding gears. Loss of brake or steering control is also possible, especially when practicing high-speed turns, and can result in very dangerous situations. It is highly recommended that anyone interested in this technique take a specialized driving course, and practice in a venue away from ordinary traffic.
Once mastered, heel-and-toe shifting can make even ordinary driving more enjoyable. Some DSMers have commented that heel-and-toe shifting is not a racing technique - rather, they feel it is the proper way to drive a manual transmission car. Regardless, it can be a useful technique for street driving, although normally only racers need concern themselves with it.
The terms 'rice' or 'riceboy' are slang terms used to describe visibly modified import model automobiles and their owners. It is used to point out the cosmetic, rather than functional, nature of the vehicle modifications.
'Rice' was apparantly first used in the 1970s when high-powered Japanese sport bikes became available. In that context it was usually well-intentioned and not considered derogatory.
The application of the term 'rice' to import cars was derived from the fact that aggressive cosmetic enhancements were first applied to import automobiles. These cars originate from countries where rice is a staple food. Additionally, these import automobiles were popular among asian owners, who preferred the asian cars over those of American manufacture. So, by extension, 'riceboy' originally referred to an asian owner of such a modified automobile, and was considered by most to be racist. (This probably explains why the term 'ricegirl' never appeared - people are not likely to be politically correct about a politically-incorrect term.)
In addition, these terms hinge on the presence of cosmetic rather than performance improvements. Cars which exhibited primarily or purely cosmetic enhancement, with little or no performance enhancement, may combine aggressive looks with mediocre performance. Referring to these cars as 'ricey' was often meant to be insulting or derogatory by silmutanously pointing out the 'inferior' nature of the vehicle as well as the owners preference for style over substance.
Fortunately, the term 'ricey' has outgrown it's original meanings. The term is now in widespread use on the Talon Digest as referring to any owner of any cosmetically modified car, regardless of their ethnic background, and is no longer intended as a racist slur. It is also no longer used to express disdain for cosmetic improvements, as the general membership has come to recognize that different owners want different things.
Some owners even take pride in their pursuit of aggressive style. Many DSMers are happy to call their cars 'ricey', or 'rice-burners', with some going so far as to install gauge sets that list 'rice' instead of 'fuel'. They express pride in their DSMs ability to match performance and looks against American-made V8 powerhouse automobiles with literally half the engine.
While few performance automobiles are completely without cosmetic enhancements, not all are considered 'ricey'. In general, the more obvious, exaggerated or overstated the cosmetics, the more 'ricey' the car is. Recent trends in import automobile circles have yielded some cosmetic features that are humerous even to their owners, being obvious, obnoxious and useless all at the same time. (One good example recently seen is an Nissan Sentra equipped with a ten-inch exhaust tip which resembles nothing so much as a rocket exhaust projecting out of the rear of the car.)
Please note that because of irreconcilable differences of personal opinion, discussion about the value of performance vs. appearance is not part of the Talon Digest and is generally discouraged on other forums as well. Also, because of it's emotionally-charged heritage, use of the term 'riceboy' should be approached with caution, lest the target accidentally misinterpret the intended meaning.
A datalogger is a device that monitors and records information for you. Dataloggers are often used on racing vehicles, to provide the tuners with better information from which to base tuning decisions.
Although there are several dataloggers available for DSMs, most people who refer to a 'datalogger' mean the TMO datalogger fromTechnomotive, although some might be referring to the Pocketlogger or DSMlink. These extremely useful devices recieve and interpret a continuous stream of information from the DSM ECU, allowing a 'sneak peek' into the 'thinking' of the car.
These products operate using proprietary software and hardware to collect, interpret, analyze and display the ECU information. To do a similar job, a device would have to know the format of the information output by the DSM ECU.
Specific information concerning DSM ECUs and their output format is not in the public domain and might only be found by deciphering the DSM ECU code. Advanced tuners have agreed that the 1G DSM uses the ALDL (Assembly Line Data Link) interface similar to many General Motors cars. For more information on ALDL, see this answer in this FAQ.
2G vehicles use the OBD-II system, which is not compatible with ALDL. The OBD-II system was adopted as an industry standard on later model cars. However, the OBD system is slower and has less information available as compared to the proprietary solutions.
It is possible to create a datalogger to monitor the same information that commercial datalogging systems provide. However, to create a comprehensive standalone system capable of matching the TMO logger, Pocketlogger or DSMlink in capability is a formidable task for most people. The job has recently been simplified as freeware datalogging software and ready-made cables have become available.
The Last Word: TMO is long gone, but you can still buy Pocketloggers. At least until all the serial-port Palm units die - there doesn't seem to be a ALDL-to-USB device available (yet?).
TMO is the conventional contraction and website address for Technomotive, the first company to ever produce effective, customized chips for DSMs and to manufacture a DSM datalogger. A TMO ECU is an ECU that has been modified with one of the TMO upgrade chips. The TMO datalogger is a laptop-based data acquisition and recording device for DSMs. For more details, visit their website.
TMO gauges are a feature of the Technomotive ECU upgrade for DSMs. The upgrade reprograms the useless stock boost gauge on turbo models to display any of five different measurements, such as timing advance and injector duty cycle.
A Pocketlogger is a datalogger that runs on the Palm computing platform. Aside from operating on a Palm and not a laptop, it is substantially similar to the TMO datalogger described above. More information can be found at the Digital Tuning web site.
DSMLINK is now known AS ECMLINK.
Palm DSMLink can no longer connect to the ECU since V3.
ECMLINK is a tuning and datalogging product for the DSM Platform. Not just another OBD-II datalogger, DSMlink includes a new ECU chip that allows the factory ECU to be programmed and effectively communicate. ECMLINK is now a PC (Windows/Linux) only software written using Java.
Additionally, it allows the ECMLINK application to re-program the ECU "on-the-fly" to a certain extent, giving the operator additional flexibility by allowing changes to the onboard ECU fuel and timing maps.
The DSMlink is limited by the fact that it requires an EPROM ECU. 1G version has been developed. 2G has been supported for many years.
If you have any questions regarding ECMLINK, visit ECMLINK Contact Us
ALDL is an acronym for Assembly Line Data Link. It is a one-wire interface used to connect the engine control unit (ECU) to diagnostic computer systems for diagnosis and troubleshooting.
1G DSMs use a version of the ALDL interface. All 1G dataloggers are designed to connect to the interface and interpret the information. 2G vehicles do not use ALDL, they use OBD-II (see below).
DSM enthusiasts did not recognize the ALDL interface for what it was until fairly recently. Because of this the GM hobbyists have much more information available on how ALDL works. There may be differences between the GM ALDL format and the DSM ALDL format since ALDL is not a formalized standard. For more information on ALDL, see these links:
"Fuel trim" in the ECU is the ECU's method of tuning individual cars.
In theory, the ECU reads the amount of air entering the engine via the mass airflow sensor (MAS) in the air intake. It will then add the proper amount of fuel through the injectors, ensuring a good burn, low emissions, etc.
However, while that works in theory, it rarely does in practice. MAS sensors vary, even when calibrated, even if only due to age. Injectors become clogged, fuel and turbo pressures can vary, parts wear or are replaced.
The way to compensate for the individual car-to-car variations is through fuel trim. By checking the oxygen sensor, the ECU can "check" if the amount of fuel it added was too high or too low. It will then add or subtract fuel in small increments depending on what it "sees". It "remembers" these adjustments and averages them over a period of time, resulting in a "trim" factor. The fuel trim is constantly applied and adjusted.
There are three fuel trims on DSMs: low, medium and high. These refer to the mass of air entering the engine, and only roughly correspond to RPM ranges. Low applies mostly to idle (750-1000 RPM), high in the 3000-4000 region, and middle in between.
Users of Super-AFC and similar units usually try to adjust their AFCs so the fuel trims are near 100%. This is mostly to provide a baseline of settings for future tuning - it means the AFC settings are "fooling" the ECU into "thinking" the car is still stock (or near stock). It also allows the ECU a lot of range to adjust the fuel trims as necessary.
Fuel trims have no effect at open loop (high RPM or hard accelleration). In this situation the ECU is ignoring the oxygen sensor and there is nothing to trim. Datalogger owners will see their fuel trim "stick" at 100% in open-loop situations.
For ECMLink Users, view Tuning with ECMLink article
The "blue wire" modification involves taking the blue wire from the AFC - normally unused on DSM installations - and connecting it to the oxygen sensor. The blue wire is a sensor check connector from the AFC that allows it to display the oxygen sensor reading. Kind of a free A/F gauge. The AFC does not change anything based on this "blue wire" input, it can only display it.
While quite popular initially, evidence is growing that the AFC accessory sensor inputs are not suitable for this kind of connection. Many people have reported that connecting the blue wire to the oxygen sensor artificially lowers the oxygen sensor signal by a significant amount. This is entirely possible since the AFC sensor inputs might not have been designed to be connected to low-power sensors such as the DSM oxygen sensor.
Still, it is a popular modification for those who want an unobtrusive way of keeping an eye on the oxygen sensor without actually using it as a serious tuning tool. Many DSMers scorn the idea of tuning by O2 reading in any case, as it is most likely the least accurate - though most certainly the least expensive - method available.
The Last Word: This mod is cute, but useless. Use for entertainment value only.
The "MAP sensor" mod connects a manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor to the AFC throttle input. The goal is to make the AFC load-sensitive rather than RPM-sensitive. As the boost level increases, the AFC can deliver more fuel accordingly. For more information, see this VFAQ by Corbin Behnken.
Here is a summary of the mod:
" Lots of questions about this mod. So here is a summary.
Why? Turn the Hi/Lo throttle reference for the NE points on the SAFC into boost references and not throttle position dependent. This makes the SAFC engine load sensitive.
How? Buy 3 bar sensor GM Part # 16040749 at http://www.gmpartsdirect.com/
wire Pin A = Ground - on firewall
wire Pin B = Sensor output, cut the gray wire that previously attached the ECU's throttle position terminal, and wire the sensor output to this wire of the SAFC
wire Pin C = +5v, recommend throttle position sensor wiring harness - turn ignition on and use a multimeter to find it.
The map sensor has special 3 pin weatherpack connector, these are available from the junkyard or the wiring accessory section of any good automotive store. Get the one with pigtail wires, usually these connectors have internals alignment grooves - shave with knife to fit. Splice into your boost gauge (manifold pressure and vacuum are necessary) with a 1/4" tee and run hose to the sensor nipple.
Drive car and observe the voltage on the SAFC that the sensor makes at max boost. Let's say YOUR car makes 19psi boost and the corresponding sensor output voltage is 4.1v , take 4.1 divide by 5.0 (max sensor output) and the result is 0.82 or 82% This is your Hi Throttle NE point on your SAFC. Set the Lo Throttle similarly. I used a sensor voltage of 1.15v, which corresponds to slightly above -5 in Hg. and is usually not seen at 70mph cruise, thus 1.15/5.0 = 0.23 or 23%. The Lo Throttle NE point is now 23%. I am still working on tuning this in. I pick up some part throttle knock under light acceleration, but mash it to the floor and it works very very well. The upper rpm is better than before I did this mod. I will make a VFAQ page for this someday.
"Altezza" lights are rear brake lights that have a clear lens overtop of round red lamps. This unique look was apparently first marketed by Toyota in Europe on it's Altezza model sedan, and is sometimes referred to as "European Altezza" or simply "Euro-style" lamps. The Altezza was marketed in North America as the Lexus IS300, but the "Altezza" name stuck once the brake light design was adapted to other cars - probably because it sounded better than "IS300-style".
Please see Has anybody ever installed "Altezza" brake lights on their [DSM]? for information regarding the legality of Altezza lighting systems.
"AN" fittings are a standardized system for tubing and fittings originally created for the U.S. military (Army-Navy). Designations such as AN-8 are Army-Navy sizes. In theory, fittings and parts with the same AN size will always fit together.
For a given AN-x size, take x/16" to get the simple imperial size. For example, an AN-8 fitting is 8/16" (= 1/2") big. An AN-4 fitting is 4/16" (= 1/4") big.
Sizes refer to the outside size only. The inside size (bore) of AN fittings is not standardized, so some parts will have a smaller inside diameter than others.
AN fittings are sometimes used in the automotive world as upgrades to existing factory parts. In the case of DSMs, the metric-to-AN adapters can sometimes be hard to come by. Some people substitute combinations of metric-to-NPT (national pipe thread) and NPT-to-AN fittings - both types are airtight when torqued correctly.
These are strength designations for metric bolts. DSMs, being primarily Mitsubishi cars, use metric fasteners.
Metric bolt strength is designated by 2 numbers separated by a decimal. The first number is the minimum tensile ultimate strength: the resistance to fracturing, given in megaPascals (MPa). The second number is the minimum tensile yield strength: the resistance to deformation, and is rated as a percentage of the first number. Thus, a 10.8 bolt has a 10 MPa ultimate strength, and a yield strength of 0.8 (80%) of that number (= 8 MPa). Generally, the higher the better.
For a table of typical fastener grades, try here.
A roll cage is a rigid metal frame installed inside a vehicle to protect the occupant(s) in the event of a rollover accident. It is a commonplace requirement for many racetracks to require a roll cage for cars that participate in racing events. Fortunately for amateur racers, roll cages are usually not required unless your car is quite fast. Roll cages usually have to meet specific requirements laid down by one or more sanctioning bodies and pass inspections to that effect.
Dale Hammons had the following to say regarding roll cages (edited for appearance only):
"Keith Sontheimer asks about roll cages. As an SCCA tech inspector I have seen a lot of roll cages. The best ones are made by businesses that build tube frame race car chassis or prepare cars for racing. The tube frame chassis people are every where. If you can't find them in any other way go to a local race event find a car with good workmanship and ask the owner who did it.
To get a cage that meets your expectations on final appearance and function you need to have a full understanding of what is needed by the sanctioning body that you are having the cage built to. This will dictate tubing size and wall thickness. Make sure the roll cage fabricator has a copy of your sanctioning bodies requirements. He may not be familiar with your form of racing. How many attachment points are required or allowed. You need to realize what trim items must be removed and modified to accommodate the roll cage (especially dash and rear seat).
Be prepared to modify or add to the cage after its first inspection because you will probably miss something. Get the cage inspected before its painted and all the trim items are back in place in case changes are made.
Your question (ease of installation, cost, quality, ease of exit/entry, etc.)? Bolt in cages are relatively easy to install, relatively inexpensive, tend to be ugly, will need parts added to pass inspection. Welded in cages are a time consuming installation, probably cost around $2000, will look as good as the workmanship used. Ease of entry: all cages reduce ease of entry, as more LH intrusion protection is added the ease of entry decreases."
Duty is the cost of importing goods into a country, levied by the government.
Duty rates in Canada range between 0% and 35%, where the average duty rate is 8.56%. Some goods are not subject to duty (e.g. certain electronic products, antiques, etc.).
Preferential duty rates
Canada has signed free trade agreements with a number of countries. To be entitled to preferential tariff treatment, a good must meet the "originating" criteria as set out on the Rules of Origin of individual FTAs. A certificate of origin is required upon importation, when the value of an import is greater than CA$1600, for preferential duty rates to apply.
Brokerage fees are the fees charged by non-government firms for handling Customs processing of imported goods. Since they are not duty fees, they cannot be avoided by claiming duty-exempt status on the imported goods.
An EPROM is an electrically programmable read-only memory, or a type of computer memory that can be programmed only once, but read an unlimited number of times. EPROM ECUs have such a memory IC installed in them. This memory holds the program code that controls the ECU behavior. The EPROM is a separate chip from the microcontroller (computer chip) that actually runs the program. This makes it easy to change the ECU programming, since only the EPROM need be replaced, and EPROMs and their associated programming tools are relatively common.
The alternative, a non-EPROM ECU, does not have an EPROM. Instead, the program is stored inside the microcontroller itself (technically, in embedded EPROM memory that is part of the microcontroller). This makes it hard to change the ECU programming, because the microcontroller needs to be replaced. These are difficult to get, and require special programming tools that are equally difficult to find.
OBD is an acronym for "On Board Diagnostics". OBD-I was version 1, OBD-II is version 2.
It is an industry-standard method of communicating with the onboard engine computer. It was created so that ECUs from different manufacturers would have a standardized communication protocol instead of several different proprietary versions.
Sometimes pre-OBD cars (such as 1G DSMs) are referred to as OBD-I cars. This is not accurate, since they use the ALDL interface. 1995 cars might be OBD-I rather than OBD-II, but since most OBD tools support both I and II the difference is usually not important.
There are actually three different possible interfaces within the OBD-II standard: PMW, ISO, and PMZ. [So much for standardization....] All 2G DSM's use the ISO version of the interface, so any diagnostic equipment used must also support the ISO version of OBD-II.
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